The marshy lands of the south gave Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue unique characteristics.
They did not engage in extensive agrarian agriculture, relying instead more heavily on fishing, hunting and aquaculture.
However, the relationship of mantle melting beneath this region to its geodynamic setting is controversial, being variously attributed to mantle plumes, extreme lithospheric stretching, and lateral asthenospheric displacement.
There is little or no definitive evidence for regional mantle upwelling while lithosphere stretching alone appears to be insufficient to allow for melting, Here, we present geochemical and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic (and paleomagnetic data), for cored sections from the Pleiku and Buon Mê Thuột plateaus in south-central Viet Nam, representative in most respects of the Indochina province as a whole.
The Qin armies also advanced south along the Xiang River to modern Guangdong and set up commanderies along the main communication routes.
Motivated by the region's vast land and valuable exotic products, Emperor Qin Shi Huang secured his boundaries to the north with a fraction of his large army, and sent the majority south to seize the land and profit from it while attempting to subdue the barbarian Yue tribes of the southern provinces.
Prior to Han Chinese migration from the north, the Yue aborigines cultivated wet rice, domesticated water buffalo, built stilt houses,tattooed their faces and dominated the coastal regions from shores all the way to the fertile valleys in the interior mountains.
Water transport was paramount in the south, so the two states became advanced in shipbuilding and developed maritime warfare technology mapping trade routes to Eastern coasts of China and Southeast Asia. In the Spring and Autumn period, the two states, now called Wu and Yue, were becoming increasingly involved in Chinese politics.
Traditional accounts attribute the cultural change to Taibo, a Zhou prince who had self-exiled to the south.
In the Pleiku shield olivine tholeiite flows are intercalated with quartz tholeiites while, in contrast, alkali basalts predominate over olivine tholeiite in the Buon Mê Thuột (BMT) shield.
The first of these features (in Pleiku) probably reflects crustal wall-rock reaction while the second (at BMT), suggests an atypical magma supply system, possibly reflecting a contemporaneous change in the regional stress field.
The Yue aborigines were gradually displaced and assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the first half of the first millennium AD.
Many modern southern Chinese dialects bear traces of substrate languages originally spoken by the ancient Yue.