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"These are all indirect deaths, and they are significant," Hagopian told AFP.The aim of the study was to provide a truer picture of the suffering caused by war, and hopefully to make governments think twice about the harm that would come from an invasion, she said.

Those included situations when a pregnant woman encountered difficult labor but could not leave the house due to fighting, or when a person drank contaminated water, or when a patient could not get treated at a hospital because staff was overwhelmed with war casualties.On July 7, ISIS carried out a triple suicide attack on a Shia shrine in Balad, 100 km north of Baghdad, killing at least 35 and wounding over 60.In September and October, ISIS launched at least three chemical attacks on the Iraqi town of Qayyarah, south of Mosul.When multiplied by the whole population, they returned a number that represented "excess deaths." Researchers estimated there were 405,000 excess Iraqi deaths attributable to the war through mid-2011.They also attempted to account for deaths missed because families had fled the country, and estimated 55,805 total deaths, bringing the total to nearly 461,000.