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In eastern Arabia, inscriptions in a script derived from ASA attest to a language known as Hasaitic.Finally, on the northwestern frontier of Arabia, various languages known to scholars as Thamudic B, Thamudic D, Safaitic, and Hismaic are attested.Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino).Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish.

In Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested.The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: Arabia boasted a wide variety of Semitic languages in antiquity.In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family (e.g. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (non-Central Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time.Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hijaz.These features are evidence of common descent from a hypothetical ancestor, Proto-Arabic.