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The Kalash are crucial for those interested in the origins of Indo-Iranians, and the fact that they are, indeed, a simple West/South Asian mix is not without significance for that question.The Kalasha of Hindu Kush The Indo-Iranian languages, also known as the Aryan languages,constitute the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.Kalaṣa-alâ is closely related to the Tregami language, or Gambiri, a language spoken by the Tregami people in the villages of Gambir and Katar in the Watapur District of Kunar Province in Afghanistan, with a lexical similarity of approximately 76% to 80% according to one estimate.Tregami belongs to the Indo-European language family, and is on the Nuristani group of the Indo-Iranian branch. Its speakers are overwhelmingly Muslim, and literacy rates are low: Below 1% for people who have it as a first language, and between 5% to 15% for people who have it as a second language.These include Kalasha-mondr, Palula, Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Nuristani, Yidgha, Burushaski, Gojri, Wakhi, Kyrgyz, Persian and Pashto.Since many of these languages have no written form, letters are usually written in Urdu, Pakistan’s national language.Note that there is close connection between Kalaṣha-alâ and Kalaṣa-mun, which is spoken in Pakistan’s southern Chitral District.These two languages descend from different branches of the Proto-Indo-Iranian language.

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Major dialects include Kata-vari, Kamviri, and Vai-ala. These are influenced by, and sometimes classified as, Dardic languages; but this is more of a geographical classification than a linguistic one.The languages are spoken by tribal peoples in an extremely isolated mountainous region of the Hindukush, one that has never been subject to any real central authority in modern times.This area is located along the northeastern border of Afghanistan and adjacent portions of the northwest of present-day Pakistan.It is also the largest branch, with more than 1 billion speakers stretching from Europe (Romani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli) and Assam (Assamese) and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhalese).Indo-Iranian consists of three groups: Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani.