Click here to see a 16th-century calf binding by Christopher Plantin on which some of the tooled elements are painted in white, gray, black, green, and red (Koninklijke Bibliotheek).
Packet switching enables the transmission capability of a computer network to be used with maximum speed and efficiency, reducing costs and enhancing productivity. A book with one or more layers of compressible material, such as cotton batting, added to the surface of the boards before the outer covering is applied, to make the binding soft to the touch (see this example).
The earliest paintings were made over 30,000 years ago on the stone walls of caves in southern France and northern Spain by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who used brushes and their own breath to apply natural pigments (see this example from Altamira Cave in Spain). The study of early forms of writing, such as the ancient inscriptions carved on monuments and the various scripts used in classical and medieval manuscripts.
A discipline that began with the 15th-century humanists, paleography includes the decipherment of ancient texts and the determination from external characteristics of date and place of origin.
The style was used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries on albums, diaries, volumes of poetry, etc.
A flexible lightweight wrapper with a self-adhesive flap, designed to protect items such as books during shipment.