Archaeological evidence demonstrates that South America was occupied by early man at least 10,000 years ago, ample time for high civilizations to have evolved in the central Andes and for ecological adjustments to have been worked out elsewhere on the continent.
Scientific dating techniques establish that agricultural societies flourished.
Migrants crossed from Siberia to Alaska, probably some 20,000 to 35,000 years ago (or perhaps earlier), when there was a land and ice bridge between the two continents.
They seem to have remained locked in the northwestern sector of North America for eons, held back by impenetrable glacial formations.
South American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting the continent of South America.
On the contrary, the continent was spottily inhabited by simply organized hunters and gatherers who then occupied the most favourable regions.It was a period of thousands of years’ duration, however, toward the end of which some knowledge of plant domestication reached the Peruvian coast.The next major era is set off by incipient agriculture and also is characterized by the remains of small, hamlet-type communities along the Pacific Ocean near river mouths, where the alluvial soil was able to support crops.Sporadic influences probably reached Peru and the western parts of the tropical forests from across the Pacific Ocean, but their effect on the course of cultural development in this hemisphere was negligible.Native America constituted a separate cultural unit, comparable to that of the Old World.