Two other investigators of this period made significant contributions to the understanding of what is now called hypnosis.The Marquis de Puysegur renamed it artificial somnambulism, and placed much emphasis on the notion that magnetic phenomena were most likely to be elicited under conditions of what he called "exclusive rapport" between hypnotist and hypnotized person.The effect of these legal battles for the study of hypnosis was disastrous in the short term. (1959) Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A and B. Not only did Charcot and Bernheim hold almost diametrically opposed views on many issues; both, also, were in error on some of them.
The ability to hypnotize does not qualify a person to treat others; for that, a post-graduate degree in psychiatry or clinical psychology allied to a solid grounding in hypnotic phenomena are required.The term "hypnosis" was coined by James Braid, a Manchester surgeon, in his book of 1843.Here he was following the sleep metaphors proposed by Puysegur and Faria, since the term comes from the Greek hypnosis: to sleep.The sleep metaphor came to be reconciled, to a degree, with suggestibility theory in the latter part of the 19th Century in France. He also viewed suggestion as essential in actuating the hypnotic process, in which the hypnotized person became an automaton, unable to resist the demands of the hypnotist. Towards the end of the 19th Century, two "schools" of hypnosis emerged in France.