These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage.
Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US President at the 1860 Republican National Convention.
Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States.
Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parentage.
There are many colleges and universities in the Chicago area, of which Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities.
Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues.
The city has many nicknames, the best known being the Windy City and Chi-Town.
The Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833.
Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city.