Why are gypsies fair-skinned like Iranians

Gypsies in Switzerland today

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2. Origin and history of the gypsies
2.1. The main groups of gypsies
2.1.1. The Sinti and Roma
2.1.2. The Yeniche

3. Children of the country road
3.1. Approach of the relief organization
3.2. Support and funding
3.3. Work-up
3.4. The story of Uschi Waser

4. Current situation of the gypsies in Switzerland
4.1. Sedentary people
4.1.1. Reasons for settling down Forced naturalization Bad housing conditions Patent laws and work situation Aid organization for children of the country road Education and age situation Stand and passage areas Means of communication and transportation
4.2. Travelers
4.2.1. Way of life of the travelers Gypsy traditions Language of the gypsies Professions of the traveling gypsies Importance of family and community Division of roles in the family Religion of the gypsies
4.2.2. Integration into the Swiss federal state nationality Work situation Educational situation of children and adolescents Government obligations and insurance Stand and passage areas Legal situation of the gypsies
4.3. Gypsies from the perspective of the sedentary population

5. Closing words

6. Bibliography
6.1. Secondary literature
6.2. Various

7. Appendix
7.1. Interviews with the sedentary population
7.1.1. Paul Flückiger
7.1.2. Daniel Glatz
7.1.3. Regula Schneider
7.1.4. Salome Bürgin
7.1.5. Matthias Rohner
7.1.6. Lukas Naef
7.1.7. Anne-Käthi Blatter
7.2. Interviews with the authorities
7.2.1. Hans-Peter Eugster, St.Gallen Canton Police
7.2.2. Andrea Trösch, FDJP
7.2.3. Cazis parish
7.3. Interview with the sedentary Yeniche Uschi Waser
7.3.1. Acceptance and position of the Yeniche in Switzerland
7.3.2. Yenish culture, language and traditions
7.3.3. Sedentary Yeniche
7.3.4. Aid organization for children of the country road
7.4. Interview with the traveling Yeniche Robert Huber

1 Introduction

A few years ago I was already fascinated by the gypsies. During the holidays in France I met her several times in transit areas and in cities. I became aware of the gypsies in Switzerland through a radio broadcast about the aid organization “Kinder der Landstrasse” and about the Yenish. This report by a woman who at the time fled the police with her mother in order not to come to a home or a foster family had moved me and aroused my interests.

In order to correct or consolidate my knowledge, which was shaped by prejudices, I decided to write my work on this topic.

This work should show the life of the gypsies in Switzerland, improve the knowledge of the settled population about the gypsies and reduce prejudice.

I mainly wanted to get the information from Gypsies myself and that's why I got in touch with Ms. Waser, Mr. Huber and Mr. Spichiger. It was very interesting to talk to these people whom I and many other settled people know very little about.

In the following work I will show you my findings.

2. Origin and history of the gypsies

The focus of my work are the three main groups Sinti, Roma and Yeniche. These three minorities are often grouped together as "Gypsies". However, there are major differences, especially between the Yeniche and the other two groups.

The term "gypsy" is explained in different ways. On the one hand, "Zi crooks" were wandering crooks in the Middle Ages, which the travelers of that time were also taken for. On the other hand, the travelers were called "tschigan" by the Mohammedans who kidnapped them as prisoners of war, which means "poor people" or "have-nots". The term “Athinganen” can also be the origin of today's word “Gypsy”. It stood for a heretical sect, to which the travelers were brought close because of fortune-telling.[1]

The word "gypsy" is often used as a swear word and therefore it is preferred to speak of "travelers". However, only a small part of the gypsies still live as travelers who move from place to place. The Swiss Gypsies therefore informed the FCR (Federal Commission against Racism) that they prefer the word “Gypsies” as an umbrella term, especially because the terms “Zingari” and “Tsiganes” are unproblematic in Italian and French.

2.1 The main groups of gypsies

2.1.1 The Sinti and Roma

The Sinti and Roma are a people without a state, but with their own language, culture and history. A distinction is made between the Sinti, who came to Europe in the 15th century, and the Roma, who immigrated in the 19th century. However, these two groups have a common ancestry. They come from the Panjab, an area in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. The name Sinti is derived from the Indian province "Sind" or the river "Sindhu". Roma has its origin in the word "Rome", which means "human" or "man" in Romani, the language of the Roma.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Arabs abducted the inhabitants of the Panjab during their conquest campaigns in order to use them as soldiers against the Eastern Roman legions. In the 11th century, too, the Muslims brought more than 500,000 prisoners home from the campaigns. As soldiers, prisoners or as refugees, they followed armies of the Arabs to the west. So they came via Iran, Armenia, the Black Sea to the Balkans and Russia. In Greece, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia they were sold as slaves and had to work in agriculture or serve in the army.

At the beginning of the 15th century, the first Sinti managed to flee to Central Europe. They were under the protection of King Sigismund, who wrote them a letter of protection. But the population and especially the church were not well disposed towards the newcomers. In 1496 and 1498 the letter of protection was declared null and void and it was ordered that all "Gypsies" leave the country within three months. They were then declared outlawed. These measures were not only used in the German Empire, but the gypsies were expelled, executed or captured all over Europe to be used in the war against the Turks.

In the 18th century a new strategy against the "Gypsy problem" was developed. The gypsies should be threatened to become sedentary people. Their own language, marriages with one another and the driving way of life were banned. Their children were given up for adoption in order to "protect" them from the "gypsy life". However, since many of the newly settled people had to change their place of residence due to their occupation, this procedure did not provide a solution. The gypsies were forcibly naturalized in the place where they were staying on certain dates.

After serfdom in Romania and Bulgaria ended and industrialization began, many Roma tried their luck in the West. Soon, however, competition arose between the Roma traders and the settled people. The governments reacted again with expulsions and bans work. The gypsies were precisely registered and recorded. This registration was the basis for the extermination of the Sinti and Roma during World War II

2.1.2 The Yeniche

The origin of the Yeniche is more difficult to trace than that of the Sinti and Roma. Today they live mainly in southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France. Around 35,000 Yeniche live in Switzerland.[2] They too have their own language, the Yenish. Jenisch means "the initiate". The language served as a kind of protection from the settled people. The Yenish contains elements of German, Yiddish, Hebrew and Romanes.

There are various theories about the origin of the Yeniche. One explanation is that in the Thirty Years' War they emerged from marginalized groups and minorities who joined together to form a unit with their own laws and language.

Another theory is that they were descendants of a white tribe from India and fled to the West from there. They immigrated to Europe via the north. This explains their fairness in contrast to the Sinti and Roma. Many of the Yeniche living in Central Europe today actually lived in the countries of Northern Europe a few generations ago. However, it is difficult to explain why refugees choose to drive in safe areas when they have previously been sedentary.

The opinion that the Yeniche emerged from the mixture of Sinti and Roma with the settled people is supported by some Tsinganologists.

From a linguistic point of view, the thesis that the Yeniche, like the Sinti and Roma, come from India and from there immigrated to Europe in the last 500 to 800 years is the most well-founded. However, the Yeniche themselves do not claim to find a scientifically correct answer, because they have many legends and stories that tell them about the past and mean more to them.[3]

3. Children of the country road

The Aid organization for the children of the Landstrasse was founded in 1926 within the Pro Juventute Foundation. The longtime director and co-founder Dr. Alfred Siegfried formulated the task of the relief organization as follows: "Anyone who wants to successfully combat the vagueness must try to break the association of the traveling people, he must, as hard as that sounds, tear the family community apart."[4]

The measures were therefore not directed against individual individuals, but against the culture of an entire minority, with the aim of destroying it. However, the idea of ​​the inferiority of the traveling lifestyle did not originate with Alfred Siegfried, nor at the time the aid organization was founded. As early as the 14th and 15th centuries, i.e. at the time of the split in the church, waves of plague and other unrest, attempts were made to keep society under control through rules and regulations, for example guilds or dress codes appropriate to the class. This created an ideal of society that did not include wandering life. These “traveling people” were accused of disrupting this order. They were suspected of theft, fraud and often espionage. And this way of thinking persisted into the 21st century.

3.1 Approach of the relief organization

Since the relief organization was mainly in contact with Yeniche, this term is used in the following chapter.

The travelers were systematically recorded with the help of surveys among cantons and municipalities. Their children were separated from their parents and often also from their siblings by the police or another authority and patronized, mostly by Siegfried personally. The approval required for this by the welfare authority was usually given without any problems. The children, some of whom were separated from their parents as early as infancy, mostly did not know their Yenic origins, because any contact with their parents' home was avoided.

The Jenish children were placed in foster families, orphanages, homes, psychiatric clinics, educational and penal institutions. Frequent changes of residence were not uncommon and only a few were able to develop a personal relationship with the foster parents. One reason for the many changes were psychiatric reports, which were drawn up for most of those affected and empowered Siegfried to admit the children to institutions and clinics. In these reports, notes such as “stupid”, “middle-grade nonsense” or “hereditary debilitating” appeared.[5] Victims of child removal also report physical and psychological abuse by foster parents or staff in the homes and institutions.

Figure not included in this excerpt

The Pro Juventute files show that by the time the aid organization ended, 619 children had been snatched from their parents.[6] However, this figure does not correspond to the total number of child removal, because authorities and other relief organizations also carried out these, albeit to a lesser extent. Under the direction of Alfred Siegfried, most of the children were torn from the family environment. The number of children under patronage decreased more and more under Clara Reust, Siegfried's successor.

It wasn't until 1973, when the journalist Hans Caprez im observer published a series of articles about the aid agency, criticism was raised and the aid agency's activities were discontinued.

The traveler culture was not completely destroyed, but it was seriously damaged, from which it has not yet recovered.

3.2 Support and funding

Federal Councilor Giuseppe Motta approached the Pro Juventute personally on the basis of two welfare cases that concerned travelers, and this is how the relief organization was founded. In addition, former Federal Councilors often sat on the Pro Juventute Board of Trustees, which gave it the appearance of an official national institution.

The authorities and the municipal welfare offices mostly worked very closely with the aid organization. The numerous clinics and psychiatrists, who enabled the aid organization to proceed with their expert opinions and racial teachings, were also very supportive.

The aid organization received financial support from the federal government, which received annual subsidies of CHF 10,000-15,000[7] paid and by municipalities, cantons, foundations and patrons. These donations from patrons came mainly from teachers and pastors who support Siegfried's teachings.

3.3 Reconditioning

The processing of this piece of history began with the article by Hans Caprez in the Observer and the associated end of the aid organization. After 1973, those affected by the campaign spoke up for the first time and a number of autobiographies were published. For example, they organized themselves in the Radgenossenschaft der Landstrasse[8] or the Naschet Jenische Foundation[9] and began to fight back. In 1986 Federal Councilor Egli officially apologized for the federal aid being granted to the relief organization, and a year later the Pro Juventute also apologized to the victims. Those affected were given access to the files and received reparation payments.

It was not until 1996 that the federal government approved a scientific study on the campaign. The Federal Office of Culture commissioned Roger Sablonier, Walter Leimgruber and Thomas Meier to investigate the role of the federal government and the Pro Juventute. The study was published in 1998 and received a positive response from both the Yeniche and the federal government. After a consultation among the cantons, many were ready to support an expanded study and to grant access to further documents in previously blocked archives.

The federal government financially participates in the foundation “Future for Swiss Travelers”, which advocates the interests of travelers in Switzerland.[10]

But those affected themselves also have to come to terms with their personal past. With the inspection of the files they were confronted with their history and could read everything that was written about them. Many find this coping difficult and they still suffer from the “Children of the Landstrasse” campaign.

Uschi Waser wrote for the Congress for minorities in Toronto and Paris the following poem:

Gypsies - do you speak your language?

Mother's words cannot penetrate behind walls

Gypsies - do you have brother and sister?

No bonds can be formed from homes and institutions

Gypsies - what does your soul feel?

That I wasn't a child, but dirt on the country road

3.4 Treated like a piece of dirt - The story of Uschi Waser

Uschi Waser was taken away from her parents with a police transport order. She could never really find a permanent home, because she was often taken back to another institution after a few weeks or months or was able to live with her parents for a short time. She and her parents had nothing to say about these transfers, because Dr. Siegfried patronizes, like many other "children of the country road". In the files about Uschi Waser there were notes such as: "a new offshoot of vagantity" (under 1 year old), "Let's hope that we will raise a nice human child out of the child, even though I don't want to indulge in illusions!" , "Ursula was really a picture of a bad hereditary burden". In schools and homes she experienced open racism against her as a member of the Yenish minority. It was only through her marriage at the age of 19 and the associated change of surname that she was able to evade paternalism and racism (due to the less typical name).

Until she saw the files, she thought that her life in homes, institutions, and foster families was her fault. But as she read the files above her, a world collapsed for her. She realized that it was not her mother who was primarily to blame, but that she was "like a piece of dirt" because of her origins.[11] had been treated and it usually meant nothing to the caregivers. It was only a matter of “making a nice human child out of the typical vagante child”.[12]

After inspecting the files, she had sought contact with her mother and siblings again.But it was not possible to build this relationship after a childhood without contact. The family was torn apart in the interests of the relief organization and rapprochement was no longer possible.

“You can't be more homeless than me” is a summary of her fate as a child of the Landstrasse.[13]

Today Uschi Waser is President of the Naschet Jenische Foundation, which offers a counseling center for victims of the “Kinder der Landstrasse” aid organization and helps those affected with issues such as inspection of files, finances, insurance and taxes. The advice is supported by the Pro Juventute. Uschi Waser has also been doing public relations work for years in the form of lectures, participation in panel discussions and training and further education events. Today she stands by her origins and fights to come to terms with the injustice that began with the children.

“For the children of the Landstrasse, I do not expect a street that bears our name from our homeland, no memorial stone for victims who have already died, no museum that revives our destroyed culture! We need and want a rehabilitation, especially a file correction with all the resulting consequences! "[14]

4. Current situation of the gypsies in Switzerland

4.1 Sedentary people

4.1.1 Reasons for settling down

The gypsies call those who do not move around as travelers, but live in an apartment, concrete gypsies or, if they are Yeniche, concrete ones. According to estimates, around 35,000 Yenish, 30,000 Roma and 5,000 Sinti live in Switzerland.3 Of these, only around 5,000 live as travelers.[15] That makes an astonishing number, because there is at least one gypsy for every hundred inhabitants of Switzerland. So the gypsies are not a foreign minority with whom you have no contact, but you meet them at school, in a restaurant or while shopping. Only these people do not correspond to the typical ideas that exist of the gypsies, but they live inconspicuously as concrete gypsies. But why do many gypsies no longer live as travelers and have chosen a sedentary life? The reasons lie partly in the past, in the political and economic system and in today's society. Forced naturalization

Traditionally, the gypsies had to live as a hidden people without a home and without papers on the fringes of society. In the middle of the 19th century the Swiss state, which had only existed for a short time, enforced the forced naturalization of the gypsies. They now had papers, home and settlement IDs. Some of the gypsies suspected that the gypsy hunt associated with naturalization was only the beginning of further coercive measures and surveillance and tried to evade naturalization. But many who had survived the naturalization unscathed saw this new situation as an opportunity, because they could now stay in cities and villages and even rent or build houses. Barracks and hut settlements emerged on the outskirts of cities, in which the gypsies lived among themselves but as sedentary people. They now had a better living situation and no longer had to move around with all their possessions, but were only on the move with the equipment for work.

These new possibilities brought the now settled gypsies more problems than were solved by them. The authorities could not imagine that they could finance their living or even rent through their irregular work. In addition, they were neither involved in the factory nor in the guild system and therefore did not pursue a “regulated activity”. For this offense, they were often given a workhouse sentence. The children of the punished were given to peasants as servants or maidservants. So the families and groups were torn apart. Bad housing conditions

The traveling gypsies used to live in tents or poorly insulated caravans. They envied the sedentary gypsies who did not have to move around, lived in a reasonably warm apartment and had achieved something economically. These incentives led many travelers to view the transition to sedentary life as an ascent. It was only after the end of the relief organization that the self-confidence of the travelers rose again and it was now the concrete gypsies who envied these “real gypsies”. Patent laws and work situation

Until the end of 2002, the patent system of the traveling trade, which mainly affected the gypsies, was regulated by the cantons. This means that a patent had to be obtained in each canton, which was associated with considerable costs.

The work situation for the traditional Gypsy professions had deteriorated more and more. They used to work as boiler or umbrella tinkerers, as scissors and knife grinders, cattle breeders and in other niche professions. Today it is difficult to build a secure existence with these professions and therefore many people turned to professions that required a sedentary lifestyle. Aid organization for children on the Landstrasse

The children of the Gypsies were torn away from their parents and patronized, regardless of the family situation. So the children came to settled foster families, homes or institutions and grew up there. Efforts were made to ensure that the pupils had as little contact as possible with their parents and siblings. So they often did not even know that they were (mostly) of Jenic origin and could not identify with them either. For them, the sedentary lifestyle they grew up in was more natural than the traveling one. Many of those affected later lived on as concrete gypsies or even denied their origins by no longer passing on and using the language and tradition. Their bad experiences, which were based on their origins, often caused them to behave as inconspicuously as possible so that no one knew about their past and they were not confronted with racist reactions again.

The stated aim of the aid organization had thus acted successfully in many cases: The Gypsy culture was severely weakened and the children were alienated from their own origins. Education and age situation

The schools are obliged to take the children of the Gypsies into classes over the winter. As a rule there are few problems because they are interested in the children's education. During the summer, however, the whole family roams the country and the tasks are sent to the children. This means that training is not as guaranteed as if they were going to school. Those families who value education often opt for temporary sedentarism while their children are in school. If the young people do not do their vocational training with their parents, this means that at least they do not move around. It should be mentioned, however, that education does not play a major role among the Yeniche. Traditionally, children learn their parents' job and pass it on to their children.

The Yenish do not push their old group members to old people's homes, but look after them and look after them. Life as a traveler makes certain demands on the gypsies and in old age this lifestyle is no longer possible for everyone. Some settle on one of the stands for the whole year, live there in a barrack or in a caravan and are looked after by relatives. The other possibility is that they move to a retirement or nursing home and thus also to concrete gypsies. Stand and passage areas

With industrialization and population growth, villages and towns grew rapidly and new industrial areas emerged. As a result, the gypsies lost many of their sites on the outskirts and on rivers. The land is divided into building, commercial and agricultural zones. It was and is forbidden to camp in construction and commercial zones. The gypsies can therefore no longer legally stop in many places.

Robert Huber, President of the Radgenossenschaft says: "We can drive, but not stop".[16]

Because there are too few standing and passage places, and there are cantons that do not provide any places at all, there is not enough space for more gypsies to lead their traditional lifestyle again. Means of communication and transport

Today, thanks to modern means of transport, it is possible to pursue professions that require a wide catchment area. Moving around because of work is no longer necessary. A sedentary life is more comfortable and luxurious for them.

The mobile phone and the Internet, which have also found their way into the Gypsies, make it possible to do business from one place in all of Switzerland or even in the whole world.

4.2 Travelers

4.2.1 Way of life of travelers Gypsy traditions

Campfire and music

Sitting around the campfire, making music and telling stories still play an important role today.

The Fekkerchilbi

Figure not included in this excerpt

Poster 1982, from festival guide "FekkerChilbi 2003"

Every year from Friday to Saturday after Ascension Day, the Fekkerchilbi takes place in Gersau (Canton Schwyz). The Fekkerchilbi has its origins in the period after the French Revolution. The sovereign Free State of Gersau was integrated into the Canton of Schwyz by Napoleon and lost the right to hold a rural community. The state parliament was still celebrated and many crooks and gypsies took part and contributed to this honor and jubilee celebration. This is how the Fekkerchilbi became an important part of the Gypsy tradition in Switzerland.

This tradition lasted until around 1830[17] documented and was only resumed in 1982 with the anniversary event "650 years Gersau". Around 120 Yeniche took part in the Fekkerchilbi, which was reintroduced after 150 years. There are knife grinders, basket tinkers, fortune tellers and, above all, musicians who give this weekend the right atmosphere. But it also offers space for encounters between the two cultures and between the different clans of the gypsies. Language of the Gypsies

This chapter is limited to the language of the Yenish, the largest group in Switzerland of traveling origin. The expression “Jenisch” means “knowing, seeing”. The Yenish already existed before the first Sinti and Roma came to Europe from the East, but it has continued to develop and was only passed on to members of their own people. The Yenish contains elements from French, Italian, Hebrew, Romani and Swiss dialect. What is special about this language is that it only contains around 1000 of its own words. Further required parts of the sentence are taken from the language of the host country. It is a language that is very precise and descriptive and often knows several expressions for a German word.

The Yenish has its origin as a secret language. Travelers did not fit into the sedentary social system and always lived on the fringes of society or were persecuted. A language that was only understood by one's own was a great advantage. One could trade in the market without the competition understanding anything or one immediately recognized who belonged to the Yeniche. The language strengthened the cohesion. In order to maintain this protection, words that were taken over from the "Buure" (sedentary people) were replaced by new ones. For example, the word “Beiz”, which is used today by the settled people, was originally a Yenish word, but is no longer used by them.

Often the Yenish was equated with the Rotwelsch, which was generally known as crooks language. But already because of the name, which comes from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language, there is a clear difference to Rotwelsch, which is of Germanic origin. There are certainly overlaps in the language, because both were spoken by marginalized groups and on the country road. Both contain words from the languages ​​already mentioned.

There is no spelling in Yenish. It was only used as a spoken language and therefore there is no literature in the Yenish language.

Today the secret language no longer has this original purpose and is therefore no longer maintained by many concrete niches. In addition, the settlements in which the Yeniche lived among themselves had to give way to the new buildings. So these small communities were torn apart and the Yenish as a colloquial language in the neighborhood and surroundings lost its importance. Often they also try to behave as inconspicuously as possible and to integrate into society as well as possible. That meant they stopped using their language.

According to Marlis Eugster from the Radgenossenschaft, around 10% of Yenish people speak their own language. This corresponds roughly to the driving part, which includes around 5000 people. But it is also spoken by concrete people who maintain their tradition and language.

In the meantime, the federal government has recognized the Yenish as a “non-territorial language” and the Federal Office of Culture is committed to its preservation and promotion. Professions of the traveling gypsies

Figure not included in this excerpt

Clemente Graff, Festival Leader "FekkerChilbi 2003"

In the past, the traveling gypsies worked as boiler and umbrella tinkerers, scissors and knife grinders, actors, horse breeders, basket weavers, brush makers, tanners, blacksmiths, tinners, violin makers, etc. These were all niche trades and required working professionals to move around. Many of the professions are now also carried out by the sedentary people or no longer find enough customers.

So new work had to be found. Today the gypsies live from the antiques and scrap iron trade, from restoration, renovation, from knife and scissors sharpening, peddling, from property trading and gardening. Of course, they can also be found in other professions. The importance of family and community

People who can no longer travel for health reasons are not excluded and taken to an old people's home, but are looked after and cared for by their families. So they can continue to live in their culture and community. Most of the time, the gypsies are out and about in groups and also live together in the passageways and stands.

These two examples show that the family and the community are very important to the traveling gypsies.

Even those gypsies who settled down initially cultivated this sense of community. On the outskirts they lived among themselves in barracks or hut settlements and were thus able to keep their traditions alive. These settlements had to give way more and more to the modern new buildings and so these people were displaced and scattered in all directions.

Another turning point in this community culture was the aid organization for children on the Landstrasse. As a result, as already described, hundreds of families were torn apart and in some cases could no longer be brought together despite mutual efforts. On the one hand, the idea that the children were given away by the parents persisted even after the inspection of the files and, on the other hand, false expectations were set in the event of a reunification: the parents were expected to be these adult children, whom they had not seen for several decades , suddenly as they love their children and the children were expected to immediately put their trust in the parents they might be seeing for the first time. In this way, parents and children were further alienated from one another and, due to these conflicts, contact was broken off completely. Division of roles in the family

The family seems to be very patriarchal to the outside world. For example, there are no women on the management or board of directors of the bicycle cooperative.

But appearances are deceptive. The men represent the family and their culture to the outside world and act as the head, but within the family it is the woman who makes the decisions.

The role of women is also increasingly being strengthened externally, because they too work and thus make a considerable contribution to livelihood. Gypsy religion

Most of the gypsies in Switzerland belong to the Catholic denomination. Some of them have their own patron saints and ceremonies. Pilgrimages are made regularly, for example to Einsiedeln or Saintes-Maries de la Mer in southern France, where mainly Sinti and Roma meet.

Uschi Waser said, however, that religion no longer plays a major role among the Yeniche in Switzerland.[18]

4.2.2 Integration in the Swiss federal state Nationality

For centuries the gypsies lived without paper and were therefore not protected against any attacks by the police officers or the sedentary population. In order to obtain this protection, they tried to go to the respective Pope or King and ask him for papers, but mostly without success. After the founding of the Swiss federal state in 1845, the situation suddenly changed. A national naturalization was carried out. The aim was to ensure that all gypsies were enrolled in one community.Most of the gypsies also welcomed these papers, but some already saw the controllability associated with them, to which they were now exposed and tried to flee. In order to naturalize these, various gypsy hunts were carried out, in which people were often killed. Work situation

The following legal text is in the federal law on the trade of travelers:

Authorization requirement[19]

1 A license from the competent cantonal authority is required for those who:

a. Offers consumers goods to order or to buy, be it while moving around, by visiting private households without being called or by running a temporary outdoor camp, in a pub or from a vehicle;
b. Offers consumers services of any kind, be it while moving around or visiting private households without being called;
c. runs a fairground trade or a circus.

2 The canton determines the competent authority.

Granting the permit[20]

1 The competent cantonal authority grants the license if the requirements of Article 4 or 5 are met. The permit is issued in the form of an identification card; the exception to this is the permit for the showman and circus trade.

These two excerpts from the federal law show that traveling gypsies have to obtain a permit, also known as a work patent, in order to pursue their professions. Art. 7 states that these permits are issued by the cantons. This means that the gypsies have to obtain a patent in every canton in which they operate. These are pretty expensive. This regulation leads to double taxation, because through the fees you pay your taxes indirectly. In addition, they pay taxes again on the income that they state in their tax return.

A new law came into force on January 1, 2003, which brings great advantages to the traveling trade. The permits are no longer regulated by the cantons and are valid throughout Switzerland. In addition, the duration of the approval has been increased to 5 years, thus reducing costs and administrative work considerably.[21]

According to the Radgenossenschaft, however, a complete abolition of this patent obligation is still being discussed, even if this change in the law already brings great advantages. Educational situation of children and young people

The children of the traveling gypsies, like the sedentary ones, have to go to school. They go to school over the winter months, which they spend at the community stand where they left their papers. While they are on the move, they are given a dispensation and school supplies are forwarded to them. They do their jobs individually. However, since education is not very important to the Gypsies, schoolwork is often neglected during the summer.

After the end of compulsory schooling, the young people are usually introduced to the job of their parents. Here, too, the importance of a graduate training for the future is often not yet recognized. Government Obligations and Insurance

In this area, the same provisions apply to the gypsies as to all residents of Switzerland. They have to have certain insurance, they pay contributions to the AHV, IV, etc. and they pay tax on their property and income. Since in most cases the income is not very high, these contributions are correspondingly small. The taxes are paid in the municipality in which you have deposited your papers.

Marriage, birth, divorce, etc. are also registered in this community.

Young men fit for military service are required to do their military service. Stand and passage areas

Because of the parcelling, there is very little space for the gypsies.

In winter they live on the stands of their community. In these places they usually live in permanent barracks or huts, which offer more comfort than the caravans. The places are made available by the cantons or municipalities and offer the gypsies water and electricity connections, sanitary facilities and waste disposal. There are such places, for example, in Will, Zurich, Bern and in the canton of Graubünden, because many gypsies have been naturalized there and therefore acceptance is relatively high.[22]

They travel from place to place from April to October. That depends on the work, on the passage spaces that are available and on the school for the children. They are allowed to stay in the official transit areas for a maximum of one month, then they have to move on. The infrastructure that is provided here is usually very poor or does not exist at all.

The foundation “Future for Swiss Travelers”, established by the federal government in 1997, and the cycling cooperative advocate new living space for traveling gypsies and mediate between authorities and gypsies.[23] Legal situation of the gypsies

Federal Constitution, Article 8

2 Nobody may be discriminated against, specifically not because of their origin, race, gender, age, language, social status, the form of life, religious, ideological or political convictions or because of physical, mental or psychological disabilities.

The Gypsies were recognized by the federal government as a "non-territorial minority" and they were granted protection and promotion of their culture. A direct political say is also discussed again and again, because with around 70,000 to 80,000 people3 this minority is larger in number than the population of the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Nidwalden, Glarus, Appenzell and Jura. It should be mentioned, however, that a large number of these Yeniche, Sinti and Roma no longer live as travelers.

4.3 Gypsies from the perspective of the sedentary population

I conducted a survey about the opinion of the sedentary population about the gypsies. In the following chapter I will briefly point out and summarize these answers.

Gypsies, predominantly Yenish in Switzerland, are restricted by all those surveyed to travelers who only make up around 10-15% of all gypsies living in Switzerland. 16

The majority of them are defined as a population group that travels from place to place in an association, lives in caravans or mobile homes and does odd jobs. They come from Eastern Europe or Spain and have no real nationality because they don't stay in the same place for long. Their standard of living is generally rated as simple. The towing vehicles and caravans, however, are usually perceived as luxurious.

Some interviewees had contact with the traveling part of the gypsies, for example at the front door as knife and scissors grinders, tinkers or peddlers, but it is only suspected that they were gypsies. Occasionally there are passages or stands where gypsies have already been seen. Most of the time, however, encounters with gypsies are reported, especially abroad (Spain, France, Germany, Hungary) or street musicians who gave the respondents the impression of gypsies.

All interviewees assigned characteristics to the gypsies which they consider typical. They mostly have black hair, a slightly darker skin tone, wild looks, and simple clothes. They are also cheerful people who love freedom and, as already mentioned, move around. The music and happiness are stated to be important components of the driving life. Their appearance and their communication with other people is sometimes described as brash or even cheeky. The centuries-old opinion that gypsies cheat and steal is still relevant today. It is based in part on the idea that the high-horsepower cars and the new caravans cannot possibly be financed by the income from the work that the gypsies do.

Little is known about the history and culture of the Gypsies. It is mentioned once that the gypsies, especially the Roma, were persecuted and killed by the Nazis, like the Jews, during the Second World War. The family and the community are stated as important, although this is very hierarchically structured and a head is at the top. It is mentioned on the one hand that they speak the respective language of the host country and on the other hand that they mainly speak Italian, Romansh or original dialects. The Yenish language is not known as such.

When asked if they would like a stand in their community, the majority of those questioned answered yes. As long as the gypsies adhere to the laws and regulations that also apply to sedentary people, they would not be annoying or even have a certain attractiveness, because you would learn more about them that way.

Refusals are justified with the view that the gypsies steal, with the costs incurred for the community by providing the infrastructure, with the low tax revenue for the community and newspaper reports about abandoned places and conflicts with the police and the authorities.

Hans-Peter Eugster from the media service of the St.Gallen cantonal police says that the police mainly have contact with foreign gypsies, because they sell bad goods at overpriced prices and leave the seats in a bad condition. He goes on to say that the gypsy reputation for stealing cannot be statistically proven.

The younger respondents do not know the Pro Juventute aid organization for children on the Landstrasse. The respondent, who had experienced the time of the relief organization, has a certain understanding of the removal of children in individual problematic cases, but by no means for the goal of eradicating a culture. From the point of view of care, the children with difficult homes should not have been placed in sedentary families, but also in traveling families. What is serious is that they treated children as inferior and were often mistreated.

In contrast to this answer, another person says that it was a reparation project of the politics towards the gypsies in WWII and the post-war period.

For many respondents, the freedom to wander around and the natural life without great luxury are something fascinating. Especially the younger ones see something positive in life without a permanent residence and it represents independence for them. Nevertheless, most prefer a sedentary life, because work and school are regulated, you know where you belong and the sedentary life seems to them more convenient.

5. Closing words

As for most Swiss people, for me the gypsies were a wandering people who loved the community around the campfire and with whom I actually had no contact. So my ideas were shaped by many clichés.

In the course of my work, this image has changed a lot and I got to know the Gypsies as a Swiss minority who for the most part live inconspicuously among us.

A great deal of injustice was done to this minority in the last century, but they have still held their own up to the present day and many Gypsies, especially Yeniche, are back to their origins.

Especially those who maintain their traditional driving way of life again need support in the form of standing and transit areas. This is the only way to maintain this valuable culture.

It is therefore important to overcome the existing prejudices and to approach the gypsies. During my research, I have seen how happy they are to talk about their history, culture and way of life and how happy they are about interests.

Only in this way will they be able to continue to live out their language, their culture and their lifestyle and thus contribute to the diversity of our country.

6. Bibliography

6.1 Secondary literature

- Becker, Helena Kanyar, Jenische, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland, Basel, 2003.
- Federal Commission against Racism, TANGRAM Bulltin of the Federal Commission against Racism 3, 1997.
- Hungerbühler, Regula, Travelers in Switzerland: Outsiders Among Established, Zurich, 2003.
- Liégeois, Jean-Pierre, Schooling for ethnic minorities: The example of the Sinti and Roma, Luxembourg, 1988.
- Liégeois, Jean-Pierre, Roma, Sinti, Fahrende, Berlin, 2002.
- Tebbutt, Susan, Sinti and Roma in German-speaking society and literature, Frankfurt am Main, 2001, 7.
- Walder, Urs, Nomaden in der Schweiz, Zurich, 1999.
- Weyrauch, Walter O., The Right of the Roma and Sinti: An Example of Autonomous Legal Creation, Frankfurt am Main, 2002

6.2 Various

- Documentation of the "Radgenossenschaft der Landstrasse", http://www.radgenossenschaft.ch
- http://www.fahrende.ch/UEKBericht.htm
- http://www.fahrende.ch/hilfswerk.html
- http://www.jenische.ch
- http://www.thata.ch/jenische.htm
- http://www.uni-bamberg.de/ppp/ethnomusikologie/SintiRomaMus1
- http://www.naschet-jenische.ch
- http://www.jenische.ch/wer_sind _sie_reallich.htm
- http://home.balcab.ch/venanz.nobel/austellung/herkunft.htm
- http://www.jenische.ch/jenische_die_jenischen_sind_ein.htm
- Festival magazine "Fekker Chilbi 2003", Gersau, 2003

7. Appendix

7.1 Interviews with the sedentary population

1. In your opinion, are there still traveling gypsies in Switzerland?
2. What do you understand by the term “gypsy”? Are there different gypsies?
3. Have you ever had contact with gypsies?
4. Are there typical characteristics for you that you associate with the gypsies?
5. What do you know about the gypsies, about their culture, about their language?
6. Would you be in favor of a place for gypsies to be built at your place of residence?
7. If “no”, what are your concerns?
8. What is the standard of living for the gypsies in Switzerland from your point of view?
9. What do you know about the ProJuventute project “Kinder der Landstrasse”?
10. Are you fascinated by the life of the traveling gypsies? Why? [24]

7.1.1 Interview with Paul Flückiger

1. Yes, that still exists in Switzerland

2. By this I mean people who have their own culture, which in part differs from the culture of the host country. You are traveling as an association or group with your cars and caravans. They then stay in the same place for a few days and then move on. They are organized hierarchically: chief and tribal mother.

There are several variations, but what they have in common is that they are not sedentary. They are considered to be full of life.

3. Never with a whole group, only with individuals as antique dealers, tinkerers, scissors grinders or umbrella tinkerers.

4. Joyful people, tough hierarchical order.

They are said to steal and cheat. But that is precisely what I find a problematic definition. I have no experience at all in this regard.

They are not sedentary, just travelers.

The men meet you very briskly, almost a little cheeky.

5. I lack a solid, secure knowledge.

6. From the point of view that all people are equal and have the right to living space, I would like to wish this for these people. Unfortunately there is a “but” and these are the negative experiences that the churches keep having. This problem would still have to be worked on in order to find an agreement with one another.

7. My answer was yes-but. Newspaper reports usually only report negative experiences.

Rejection certainly exacerbates the conflict.

In order to find a good regulation, it takes a lot of mutual willingness to really respond to each other. Here, in my opinion, is the big problem. But anyone who has nothing to do with it cannot judge that either.

8. After the cars and trailers they use, it seems like they don't live too badly. But here, too, this is only an external assessment. I also lack any real knowledge on this point.

9. This is a very delicate chapter for me. On the one hand, I understand the motives of those responsible for the ProJuventute from my personal experience. What was probably wrong, however, is that integration into a middle-class (i.e. sedentary) family is better for the children from the start.

Unfortunately, experience has shown that some of the children suffered badly and were treated as inferior, and some were also sexually abused in other ways. There was a lack of control and it's a sad chapter.

10. Actually, I am not fascinated by the life of the gypsies.

In my opinion, the fascination comes from the longing for an unbound life. But on the other hand, this unbound life is also a burden and is not so romantic at all.[25]

7.1.2 Interview with Daniel Glatz

1. Yes
2. They are also called travelers or Yeniche. There are gypsies of various origins from Spain to Hungary.
3. Not in Switzerland, but in Spain.
4. Flamenco in Spain, love of freedom, dance, passion, Mercedes owners
5. Relatively little. Family-related culture, language according to country, a kind of "king present (but, I believe, only in certain regions)
6. No.
7. There are waste problems, costs for the infrastructure and little tax revenue.
8th.Good standard, the mobile homes are not uncomfortable. Don't think that you can really earn a lot as a gypsy.
9. Making amends for the policy towards the Gypsies in Switzerland during and after the war.
10. No.

I like to settle down because that way you know where you belong. The driving life results in many problems (school, employment, ...)[26]

7.1.3 Interview with Regula Schneider

1. Yes, I think so.
2. Gypsies are "people traveling around", there are various such peoples, perhaps those in the Mediterranean region, etc.
3. Only that I know that in Reinach BL, where I grew up, there were always people who had temporarily “right to live” on a square on the Birs.
4. Yes, black hair, dark complexion, wild looks and simple oriental clothing. They are mostly happy, musical and eager to trade.
5. Not much besides moving around.
6. Yes, of course, as long as you stick to the rules, like the other people on site, I think it's okay.
8. I think in the cities where the gypsies are welcome they certainly don't have a bad standard. Where they are unpopular and unwanted, they are sure to feel bad.
9. Actually, nothing at all.
10. Yes, I am very fascinated by life. Because there is something wild and free about it. You don't have to commit to one place.[27]

7.1.4 Interview with Salome Bürgin

1. Yes
2. A group of people who have no permanent place of residence and who are self-employed.
There are certainly different gypsies, but I don't know exactly how they differ.
3. Yes, at the front door they asked if they could sharpen our knives.
5. They live very strongly in their family ties and often speak Romance, Italian or original dialects.
6. Yes, as long as you don't behave annoyingly and intrusively, I wouldn't care. You should just stick to the same rules as we do to ourselves.
9. Nothing
10. Yes, because it looks like they are satisfied with their lifestyle and they are living quite naturally, without great luxury.[28]

7.1.5 Interview with Matthias Rohner

1. Yes, I think so.
2. For me the term “gypsy” is synonymous with “travelers”. This means that I mean groups of people without a permanent address who do not stay in the same place for long. Probably there are also those who do not have any nationality. Of the gypsies as a special group, I know the Roma people.
3. No. I've only seen them at the Wattwil train station and as street musicians who I suspected were gypsies.
4. The characteristics and associations that come to mind when I hear the word “Gypsy” are probably quite clichéd: You have odd jobs, you often come from the Balkans (e.g. Hungary), you play the violin.
5. Not a lot. Except that the Roma people and travelers in general were persecuted by the Nazis during WWII, as were the Jews. I could imagine that a lot of gypsies have a certain pride and maybe also stubborn.
6. I've never thought about that before. I think you could try it out. However, the gypsies have to adhere to certain rules and should not attract negative attention. If that happened, I would be ready to close the stand again. Otherwise I think it wouldn't be such a big problem for me to set up such a stand.
8. Not the highest I guess. But compared to the Roma in East Germany, whom I met on my vacation in Slovakia, they should have a higher standard of living.
9. Not more than one might infer from the title of the project.
10. I find it a challenging and somehow admirable way to live when you can live like this without breaking the law. For me personally, however, this would not be anything, as I am not the type and actually prefer the "sedentary".[29]

7.1.6 Interview with Lukas Naef

1. No, I've never seen it before.
2. Yes there are different gypsies. I mean by this simply people who move around and therefore have no permanent place of residence.
3. Contact no, I've only seen a few in France.
4. No, I don't, but I've heard that they would steal. Well, I think that's just such a prejudice.
5. I know, also from you, that they have their own language, apart from that under 2. actually nothing.
6. If the rumor that they would steal is just a prejudice, sure, why not?
8. I think more of a low one.
9. Nothing
10. Maybe because of a certain freedom, but if I could choose I would still choose my own life.[30]

7.1.7 Interview with Anne-Käthi Blatter

1. Yes, of course, but probably not that many anymore. I've seen some in our neighborhood.
2. Gypsies do not have a permanent home, they move from place to place. They usually live in caravans or campers.
3. No, not really.
4. Yes, gypsies live in caravans, mostly have black hair and also a bit tattered clothes. (Cliche)
5. Virtually nothing. I just know that they keep moving.
6. Yes, that would make village life more interesting. One would also learn more about these people.
8. I have no idea what standard the gypsies have here with us.
9. Never heard of it.
10. I would still be interested, but I have absolutely no idea about your life.

7.2 Interviews with the authorities

7.2.1 Interview with Hans-Peter Eugster, St.Gallen Canton Police

[31]1. To what extent does the St.Gallen canton police have contact with travelers?

2. What are the reasons that this contact occurs?

1. The St. Gallen canton police today have the same close contact with travelers as they do with permanent residents. The "Gypsies in Switzerland" have only a very minor meaning for the St. Gallen canton police.

2. There are individual police points of contact when travelers from other countries stop in our canton. Very often these people move from door to door as peddlers and offer inferior goods at inflated prices. In the end, the congregation in which you are stopping must very often find that you are leaving a great mess. These travelers also have the reputation of committing theft. However, this cannot be proven statistically.[32]

7.2.2 Interview with Andrea Trösch, FDJP

1. How does the FDJP have contact with the Gypsies? What are the problems?

1. Our department is not particularly affected by the problems you mention; It is above all the cantonal and communal administrations (building authorities, school authorities, trade and market police, etc.) that deal with the special needs of travelers. In order to receive information on current issues, they would have to contact the foundation "Future for Swiss Travelers" in St.Gallen. The Federal Office of Justice prepared an opinion on the legal problems in this context on March 27, 2002, which was published in the journal "Verwaltungspraxis der Bundesrechte - VPB" (VPB 66/2002, Issue III, No. 50 (p. 578ff.).[33]

7.2.1 Interview with the authority of the municipality of Cazis

1. Since when has a stand been made available?

2. On whose initiative was the stand opened?

3. Were there problems and fears on the part of the population?

4. Who will pay the costs for the place?

5. What infrastructure is provided?

6. Does this place create new problems for the church?

7. How great is the acceptance in the population?

8. What are the regulations for education?

9. Is there competition from the gypsies for the local industry?

10. Are the gypsies enrolled in the community? Do you pay taxes?

11. Are travelers also considered politically?

1. Since 1999

2. Canton of Graubünden and wheel cooperative

3. No.

4. Canton of Graubünden

5. Road, water, sewage, rubbish

6. From time to time at school, as the children's parents have their own special needs

7. Mediocre

8. No difference to the sedentary population

9. No.

10. Yes, the place of residence stays here, there is no problem with taxes, the gypsies pay almost none anyway.

11. Like the sedentary population.[34]

7.3 Interview with the sedentary Yeniche Uschi Waser

7.3.1 Acceptance and position of the Yeniche in Switzerland

1. What is the position of the Yeniche in Switzerland?

2. How great is the acceptance of the Yeniche in Switzerland?

3. What reactions did you get when you said you were a Yeniche?

1. The acceptance has generally increased. The “Future for Swiss Travelers” foundation, supported by the federal government, campaigns for stand and passage areas and for greater acceptance.

The bicycle cooperative is also a recognized foundation and often works together with the authorities.

2. The sedentary Yeniche are generally accepted today.

The Swiss are well accepted by the travelers, but the foreigners less so, because they often leave a lot of disorder in the squares. In these cases, the bicycle cooperative tries to mediate between the riders and the authorities.

3. Even as a child I experienced open racism in the form of prejudice and swear words. It was only when I got married at the age of 19 and the associated name change that I was able to live as a sedentary person. After my divorce, I moved to another area and experienced racism again. I forbade my daughter to tell about our origins at school in order to spare her this suffering.

7.3.2 Yenish culture, language and traditions

4. What are the Yenish traditions?

5. How do you think the Yenish came about?

6. Is the Yenish still used often?

7. How does the Yenish work?

8. What is the significance of the community and the family for the Yeniche?

9. Is there a specific division of roles in the family?

10. What role does religion play?

11. What are the typical differences between the Yenish and the non-Yenish?

12. Can the modern, technologized way of life be combined well with the traditions?

4. Campfire and community. Otherwise there are actually no special traditions.

5. I can imagine that it used to be the language of a fringe group, for example crooks or travelers.

6. The Yenish is still used by all age groups and passed on to children.

7. It is a kind of secret language that contains words from German, French and Italian. It only contains about 1000 words and these have been woven into the language of the host country. Even today it is still a kind of secret language and many Yenish do not agree that there is a dictionary with their language.

What is special about the language is that it sometimes knows several expressions for a German word, which means that things can be described much more precisely.

Since the Yenish does not exist in the written language, there is also no literature in this language.

8. The family and community are very important.

However, the aid organization often tore these families apart and no longer found them together.

Differences in the community of the Yeniche resulted from the different high compensation payments of the federal government to the "children of the highway".

When I inspected the files, I saw that my mother had sent me away too. Since then, I have no longer had any contact with my family.

9. The family and society are organized in a fairly patriarchal way. For example, only men are represented in the cycling cooperative.

But women are beginning to rebel against this form more and more, because they usually contribute part of the livelihood.

10. The gypsies are influenced by Catholicism. But religion is not of great importance.

11. The urge for freedom, nothing can be made of anything, not everything is taken very seriously, frugal people can live with little comfort.

12. The technological world has a great influence, cell phones and televisions have also found their way into the world of travelers. Most of the expensive cars and cars are leased and the drivers are in debt.

7.3.3 Sedentary Yeniche

13. Why do about 90% of the Yeniche live as sedentary people?

14. What professional and school problems do the travelers face?

15. Are there any aversions of travelers towards the sedentary Yeniche?

16. Is the Yenish still learned and used by the sedentary Yenish?

13. Forced because of work, out of convenience, because they don't know this way of life (children of the country road).

But we Yeniche always have the option of going into the caravan. The other settled people cannot do this, because only Yeniche (or other tribes) are allowed to settle on the stands and passageways.

14. Until recently, the patent law was a major problem. But this has been greatly simplified. Education has too little value.

15. There are no extreme differences.

16. With those Yeniche who stand by their origins.

7.3.4 Aid organization for children on the Landstrasse

17. How did you experience the relief organization?

18. How were you brought to the relief organization?

19. How were you treated?

20. Have you found your parents again?

21. How did you come to terms with this past?

22. What do you think of the state and the ProJuventute's apology?

17. I couldn't say anything about my situation, I was treated like dirt.

Once I lived in 7 different institutions within 3 months and in between I was at home.

I was only able to evade my tutelage with my marriage.

18. In my files there was a police transport order with which I was picked up from my parents.

19. Without participation, like a piece of dirt.

20. Yes, but now I have no more contact with my family.

21. In childhood I didn't care because I didn't know anything else.

It was only when I saw the files that a world collapsed for me, because I saw everything that was written about me. For example: "She brought bad talents into the world and one has to take that into account", "pathological lying, so-called pseudologia phantastica", etc.

22. It is an acknowledgment of injustice.

Today, ProJuventute finances the “Naschet Jenische” foundation's advice center for those affected by the aid organization.[35]

7.4 Interview with the traveling Yeniche Robert Huber

1. When do they live on stands and when do they live in transit areas?

2. How long do you travel around?

3. On what circumstances does this depend?

4. What infrastructure is provided in the transit areas?

5. Is there a demand for direct political participation?

6. How is taxation regulated?

7. How do you assess the work situation in the future?

8. Are there certain traditions among the Travelers?

9. What problems arise in the school system?

1. In winter on the stands, in summer on the passageways. A stay lasts a maximum of 3-4 weeks.

2. Usually from April to the end of October

3. From school and work

4. Water, electricity, sanitary facilities

5. This is discussed again and again

6. Like settled people, travelers pay taxes in the community in which they are registered.

7. It will not be easier for travelers to find work and new places to stay in the future.

8. Music, sense of family, Fekkerchilbi

9. If the school allowance has been approved by the school authorities and the learning material for the travel time is adhered to, there are actually no problems.


[1] Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigeuner

[2] “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 119, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[3] www.jenisch.ch/wer_sind_sie_reallich.htm, www.jenische_die_jenischen_sind_ein.htm

[4] Dr. Siegfried, quoted in the book “Jenische, Sinti und Roma in der Schweiz”, page 20, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[5] Quotation from the files of the aid organization in the book “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 30, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[6] “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 24, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[7] “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 24, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[8] www.radgenossenschaft.ch

[9] www.naschet-jenische.ch

[10] Federal law on the foundation "Future for Swiss Travelers":
The federal government supports to secure and improve the living situation and to preserve the cultural
The private law foundation “Future for Swiss Travelers” is the self-image of the traveling population.

[11] Uschi Waser, 2004, in a personal interview

[12] Pro Juventute files on Uschi Waser

[13] Uschi Waser, 2004, in a personal interview

[14] Quote from the prospectus by Uschi Waser

[15] “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 105, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[16] “Yeniche, Sinti and Roma in Switzerland”, page 122, 2003, Schwabe & Co. AG

[17] Heinrich Tschokke, “Classical Places in Switzerland”, 1842

[18] Uschi Waser, 2004, in a personal interview

[19] SR 943.1, Section 2, Article 2

[20] SR 943.1, Section 2, Article 2

[21] Annual report of the wheel cooperative, 2003

[22] Marlis Eugster, 2004, in a written interview

[23] SR 449.1, Article 1

[24] Paul Flückiger, 76 years old, Grasswil BE

[25] Daniel Glatz, 28 years old, Lichtensteig SG

[26] Regula Schneider, between 20 and 30 years old, Uster ZH

[27] Salome Bürgin, 19 years old, Ebnat-Kappel SG

[28] Matthias Rohner, 18 years old, Ebnat-Kappel SG

[29] Lukas Naef, 17 years old, Mosnang SG

[30] Anne-Käthi Blatter, 17 years old, Uetendorf BE

[31] Hans-Peter Eugster, media spokesman for the St.Gallen canton police

[32] Andrea Trösch, Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law, Federal Office of Justice

[33] 7408 Cazis GR provides a stand for gypsies

[34] Uschi Waser is a Yeniche and was taken from her parents during the relief organization

[35] Robert Huber, President of the Radgenossenschaft