Will the Indian education system be influenced

At the beginning

In ancient times in India there was the Gurukala educational system in which anyone who wanted to study would go to the house of a teacher (guru) and ask to be taught. If accepted as a disciple by the guru, one would then stay in the guru's quarters and help with all activities in the house. Not only did this create a strong bond between teacher and learner, but it taught the student everything about running a household. The guru taught the child everything he wanted to learn from Sanskrit to the scriptures and from mathematics to metaphysics. The learner stayed as long as he wished or until the guru felt that he had taught all that he could teach. All learning was closely related to nature and life and was not limited to memorizing some information.

The modern school system, including the English language, was originally introduced by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was limited to “modern” subjects like science and mathematics, subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were seen as unnecessary. Lessons were limited to classrooms and the connection with nature was broken, as was the close relationship between teacher and pupil.

The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Administrative Committee for Secondary and Middle Education was the first to be established in India in 1921, with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 1929 the Rajputana Secondary and Middle Education Committee was established. Committees were later formed in some states. Ultimately, however, the committee's constitution was expanded in 1952 and included in Central Committee of Secondary Education (CBSE) renamed. All schools in Delhi and some other regions were subordinate to this committee. It was his job to decide on things like the curriculum, textbooks, and examination systems for all of the schools that were affiliated with him. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated with the committee, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

General and compulsory education for all children ages 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This can be seen from the fact that this has been included as an official guideline in Article 45 of the Constitution. But even after more than half a century, this target remains a long way off. More recently, however, the government appears to have taken a more serious note of this failure, making primary education a fundamental right for every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute shortage of skilled and trained labor has certainly played a role in causing the government to take such a step. In recent years the Indian government's spending on schooling has reached around 3% of GDP, which is recognized to be very low.

“Lately, various important announcements have been made for the development of the poor state of the education sector in India, the most important of which are the National Joint Minimal Programs(NCMP) the United Progressive Alliance(UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) Increasingly increase spending on education to around 6% of gross domestic product. (b) To support this increase in spending on education, and to improve the quality of education, there would be an imposition of education taxes on all government taxes. (c) Ensure that no one is denied education due to economic decline and poverty. (d) Make the right to education a fundamental right for all children in the 6-14 age bracket. (e) Unify education through flagship programs such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal. " (Source: Wikipedia: Education in India)


India is in 28 states and 7 so-called Union Territories divided up. The states have their self-elected governments, while the Union Territories, with the appointment of an Administrative Director for each Union Territory by the President of India, are directly subordinate to the Government of India. According to the Indian Constitution, schooling was originally a matter for the states; H. they had complete authority in political decisions and their implementation. The role of the Government of India (GoI) has been limited to coordinating and deciding the standards of higher education. This was changed in 1976 by a constitutional amendment, so that education is now known as Parallel list comes. This means that school education policies and programs at the national level are proposed by the GoI, although state governments have a great deal of freedom in implementing the programs. Guidelines are published periodically at the national level. The Central Council of Education Committee (CABE), founded in 1935, continues to play a vital role in developing and overseeing education policies and programs.

There is a national organization that plays a key role in the development of policies and programs, called the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT), which prepares a centralized curriculum. Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for Education Research and Training (SCERT). These are the committees that basically propose educational strategies, curricula, educational plans, and evaluation methodologies to the State Education Office. The SCERTs generally follow the guidelines laid down by the NCERT. However, the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.

The national education policy in 1986, like the Action Program (POA) 1992, provided for free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children under the age of 14 before the 21st century. The government committed to earmark 6% of gross domestic product (GDP) for education, half of which should be spent on primary education. Spending on education as a percentage of GDP also increased from 0.7% in 1951-52 to about 3.6% in 1997-98.

The school system in India consists of four levels: lower primary (6 to 10 years), upper primary (11 to 12), secondary (13 to 15) and technical high school (17 to 18). The sub-primary school is in five Standards divided, upper primary school in two, secondary school in three and technical high school in two. Until the end of the technical college, the student body must study according to a general curriculum (except for regional differences in the mother tongue). A certain degree of specialization is possible at the technical college level. Across the country, learners are required to learn three languages ​​(namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue), except in regions where Hindi is mother tongue and in some refugee flows, as described below.

There are three main directions in India's schooling. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, one of which is the Central Committee on Secondary Education (CBSE), originally intended for the children of government employees who are regularly transferred and may need to move across the country. Numerous central schools (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) were established for this purpose in all major urban areas in the country and follow a common plan so that a student who moves from one school to another overnight will hardly notice any difference in what is taught becomes. One school subject (social studies, which consists of history, geography, and community studies) is always taught in Hindi in these schools, and other subjects in English. Kendriya Vidyalayas also admit other children if places are available. They all adhere to non-fiction books written and published by NCERT. In addition to these state schools, some private schools adhere to the CBSE curriculum, although they may have different nonfiction and different timetables. They have some freedom in what they teach in younger classes. 141 schools in 21 other countries are affiliated to the CBSE, which essentially cover the needs of the Indian population there.

The second key program is the Indian Certificate for Secondary Education (ICSE). It seems like this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was discussed at a conference held in 1952 under the leadership of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the current Minister of Education. The main concern of the conference was to consider replacing the overseas Cambridge school certificate exam with an entirely Indian exam. At a meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee on Anglo-Indian Education in October 1956, a proposal was made to set up an Indian council to administer the University of Cambridge, examine the local examination association, and advise the association on how best to tailor its exams to the needs of the country adapt, adopted. The Council's inaugural meeting was held on November 3, 1958. In December 1967, the council was incorporated as a company under the Company Registration Act of 1860. The council was appointed as a public examination committee in the Delhi School Education Act of 1973. Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated with this council. All of these are private schools and mainly serve the needs of children from wealthy families.

Both the CBSE and ICSE Councils conduct their own exams in schools across the country that are affiliated with them, after 10 years of teaching (after secondary school) and again after 12 years (after technical high school). Admission to Grade 11 is usually based on the results of this entirely Indian exam. Since this puts the child under enormous pressure to succeed, there were suggestions to skip the exam at the end of 10 years.

Exclusive schools

In addition, there are a relatively small number of schools that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior Cambridge, although this has largely been superseded elsewhere by the ICSE stream. Some of these schools offer students the opportunity to take the ICSE exams. These are usually very expensive boarding schools to which some of the Indians working abroad send their children. They usually have excellent infrastructure, a low student-to-teacher ratio, and very few students. Many of them have teachers from abroad. There are also other exclusive schools like Doon School in Dehradun that only accept a small number of students and charge exorbitant fees.

That being said, there are a few schools in the country, like the Rishi Valley School in Andhra Pradesh, that are trying to break away from the normal educational system that encourages memorization and introduce innovative systems like the Montessori method. Most of these schools are expensive, have high student-to-teacher ratios, and provide an environment in which each child can learn at their own pace. It would be interesting and instructive to study what impact the type of school has had on the lives of its graduates.

State schools

Each state in the country has its own department of education that runs its own school system with its own non-fiction and scoring systems. As mentioned earlier, the curriculum, pedagogy, and evaluation methods are primarily based on the decisions of the SCERT in the state, which follow national guidelines of the NCERT.

Each state has three types of schools that follow the state curriculum. The government runs its own schools on land and in government buildings and pays the staff from its own resources. These are generally called state schools known. The fees in these schools are quite low. Then there are privately owned schools with their own land and buildings. Here the fees are high and the teachers are paid by management. Such schools mainly meet the needs of middle-class families. The third type consists of schools that receive financial support from the government, although this type of school was started by a private authority with its own land and buildings. The financial grant is intended to help lower fees and enable poor families to send their children to school. In some states such as B. Kerala these schools are very similar to the state schools in that the teachers are paid by the government and the fees are the same.

The case of Kerala

The state of Kerala, a small state on India's southwest coast, has been different from the rest of the country in a number of ways for the past few decades. For example, it has the highest rate of education of any state and was declared the first fully educated state about a decade ago. Life expectancies, both for men and women, are very high; close to that of the industrialized countries. Other parameters such as fertility rate, infant and child mortality rates are among the best, if not the best, in the country. The total fertility rate has been below the reproductive rate of 2: 1 for two decades. Suicide rates and alcoholism are also very high as possible side effects of economic and social development. Government policy was also very different from the rest of the country, which led to the development model in Kerala, with high spending on education and welfare, and sls among economists Kerala model got known.

Kerala has always shown an interest in trying ways to improve its school education system. Whenever NCERT came up with new ideas, it was Kerala that tried them out first. The state experimented with enthusiasm with the District Elementary Education Program (DPEP) and took it further than elementary school classes, despite opposition from various quarters. The state was the first in the country to move away from traditional-behaviorist and towards social-constructivist paradigms of teaching methods. It was mentioned in NCERT's national framework in 2000, and Kerala started trying it out the next school year. The implementation in the classrooms as well as the evaluation methodology have been changed. Instead of direct questions, which could only be answered by memorizing the lessons, there were indirect and open-ended questions, so that the learner had to think before giving the answer, which could be subjective to a certain extent. This meant that the students had to think through what they had learned and be able to apply their knowledge in a specific situation to answer questions. At the same time, the new method took enormous pressure and the children began to find exams interesting and entertaining rather than stressful. A comprehensive and continuous evaluation system (CCE) was introduced along with this, which took into account the entire personality of the student body and reduced the dependence of the transfer decision on a single final examination. Currently, the CBSE is also conducting CCE, but in a more flexible manner.

Kerala was also the first state in the country to offer computer science as a school subject. It started in grade 8 with the introductory textbook for Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. But within a year the government was forced to include Free Software in the curriculum, thanks to software enthusiasts and the advantageous position of a teachers' association, the majority of which were government teachers. Ultimately, only GNU / Linux has been taught since 2007 and only GNU / Linux is installed on all school computers. At the time, maybe even today, this was the largest GNU / Linux installation in schools and even made headlines in other countries. Since 2007, around 500,000 children have been dropping out of school every year and learning the concepts behind free software and the GNU / Linux operating system and applications. The state is now moving towards IT-based education. Ultimately, IT is not taught as a single subject. Instead, all subjects are taught with the help of IT so that the children learn IT skills on the one hand and benefit from educational applications (such as those mentioned below) and resources on the Internet (such as text material from Wikipedia, images, animations and videos) on the other to learn their subject and to complete tasks. Teachers and students have already started using applications such as Dr. Using Geo, GeoGebra, and KtechLab to learn geography and electronics. Applications such as Sunclock, Kalzium and Ghemical are also very popular among teachers and students.

The initiative that Kerala took is now influencing other states and even the policies of the Indian government. States like Karnataka and Gujarat are currently planning to introduce Free Software in their schools, and some other states like Maharashtra are exploring the option. The new education policy of the Indian government speaks of constructivism, IT-based education, free software and the exchange of educational resources.Once a few of the larger states successfully migrate to Free Software, it is to be hoped that the entire country will follow suit in a relatively short period of time. If that happens, India could have the largest user base of GNU / Linux and free software anywhere.



[1] V. Sasi Kumar is a PhD in Physics and a member of the Board of Directors of FSF India. He advocates free software and freedom of knowledge.