Let the Romance languages ​​become satem languages

The family tree of the Latin language


(also: Indo-European) language strain with approx. 140 individual languages ​​and with approx. 2000 million speakers the largest language strain ever. The relative position of the individual language groups is unclear: it is assumed that they go back to dialects of a proto-language that was spoken about 5000 years ago north of the Black Sea.

Satem or Kentum languages:

Classification of the indoger. Language family in two basic stems after the word for "hundred": Satem (Avestian) and Kentum [centum] (Latin).

Satellite languages:

1. Indo-Iranian group - the closely related languages ​​Indian and Iranian. Old Indian: Vedic and Sanskrit; New Indian languages ​​are spoken in today's India and in Europe (Sinti and Roma).
The old Iranian family includes Avestisch, from which the name for the Satem languages ​​is borrowed.
2. Armenian
3. Albanian
4. Slavic - Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Sorbian (East German minority language), Czech, Slovak.
5. Baltic - Lithuanian, Latvian, Old Prussian (+)

Centum languages:

1. Tocharian (+) - in East Turkestan
2. Hittite (+) - 2nd and 1st millennium BC Spoken in Turkey
3. Greek - the language with the longest preserved written tradition. Already from the 2nd mill. Chr. Is written (Crete, Linear B).
4. Germanic - Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, English, German, Dutch (etc.)
5. Celtic - Island Celtic (Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Bretagne) vs. Mainland Celtic (+) (in Gaul - the Asterix language! - also in Austria)
6. Old Indo-European debris or residual languages - various, including Noric and Pannonian (in Austria)
7. Italic: Numerous (now extinct) dialects on Italian soil, which pose great problems with the classification. Landscapes and cities had their own dialects.


Italian dialect of the Lazio countryside. The main towns included Rome, Präneste and Alba Longa. These cities formed the Latin Association, which jointly pursued the veneration of Iuppiter Latiaris. A common language standard developed for this ceremony, the


City language of Rome. With the capture of Alba Longa, Rome became about 600 BC. To the capital of the Latin Federation. As a result, the urban language of Rome became the standard. The earliest evidence (inscriptions, names) date from the pre-literary period (600-240 BC); "Classical Latin" (golden latinity) is the time from 100 BC. Chr. To 14 AD. In late antique times (200-600 AD) the individual dialects of the Roman provinces ("Vulgar Latin") developed, which form the basis for today's Romance languages.

Romance languages:

1. Western Romance languages
French (France, Belgium, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, UK Channel Islands, Québec); Occitan (Gascogne, Provence; +); Catalan (Catalonia, Andorra, Roussillon [F]); Castilian (Spanish in the strict sense; Latin America); Gallego (Galicia in NW Spain; minority language); Portuguese (Portugal, Latin America); Romansh (Graubünden, S-Tirol, Friuli); Sardinian (Sardinia); N-Ital. Dialects
2. Eastern Romance languages
Italian (Italy, Ticino, Corsica, Istria, Monaco, San Marino, Vatican); Romanian (Romania, Moldova, partly Greece, Serbia, Istria); Dalmatian (+)