Can I write research on picture books?

The influence of viewing and reading picture books on language acquisition in children

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2. Current state of research

3. Excursus on definition of child

4. Explanation of terms picture book
4.1 Literacy
4.2 Types of picture books
4.2.1 Elementary picture books
4.2.2 Sensing books
4.2.3 Themed picture books
4.3 Picture book design
4.4 Influence of the pictures
4.5 Influence of the texts

5. Picture book viewing methodology
5.1 Selection of picture books
5.2 Framework conditions
5.3 Storytelling and reading aloud

6. Picture book viewing
6.1 Processing processes from the point of view of brain research
6.2 Viewing and telling
6.3 roles of looking at the child's development

7. Reading a picture book
7.1 Functions of reading
7.1.1 Cultural function
7.1.2 Literary-aesthetic function
7.1.3 Cognitive function
7.1.4 Emotional function
7.1.5 Communicative function
7.1.6 Reflexive function
7.2 Conditions for successful reading
7.2.1 Paraverbal means of expression
7.2.2 Non- and extraverbal means of expression
7.2.3 External framework conditions
7.3 Effects of reading
7.4 Reading aloud as the basis of a sustainable relationship
7.5 Reading aloud as a special form of dialogue

8. Language acquisition of the child
8.1 Conditions for recording speech
8.2 From pre-linguistic communication to language use
8.3 Relationship between language use and cognitive development

9. Studies
9.1 Reading study 2015
9.2 Study "Reading promotion through reading aloud"

10. Research
10.1 method
10.2 Procedure
10.3 Results
10.3.1 Results from the interviews with the mothers
10.3.2 Results from the interviews with the kindergarten teachers

11. Conclusion

bibliography

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1 Introduction

Every child knows it and grows up with it. We're talking about picture books. They shaped a large part of our childhood and taught us many things that were made easier to understand through illustrations and short texts. The medium of the picture book is a constant companion, as it functions as a learning tool again and again in kindergarten and school. The variety of picture book types and the stories described in them are tailored to the child's living environment and thus strengthen identity formation. Since everyday situations are described and illustrated in picture books, they primarily serve as “role models” as they teach children how to cope with certain everyday situations. An important learning opportunity is ascribed to picture books, as they want to familiarize children with important things in life from an early age and to stimulate language acquisition. Since language acquisition is one of the most important developmental tasks of children, picture books have the opportunity to contribute, but also the challenge of motivating children to read picture books and awakening the joy of reading.

Reading aloud and looking at picture books is assigned enormous potential, as it can influence children's language acquisition. How this works and how exactly children perceive language is examined in more detail in this work. The findings are supported by current studies and statements by proponents. Since there are still some research gaps regarding the link between picture books and language acquisition for children, it is extremely important in this work to fill them with new results.

The central question that this bachelor thesis deals with is how looking at and reading a picture book influences language acquisition in children. To clarify this, the work is structured as follows:

The first part of this work provides a theoretical overview that describes the picture book medium with its diversity and peculiarities in more detail. Subsequently, reference is made to the texts and images in picture books and shows what function they have and how they affect the child's development. Furthermore, the method of viewing picture books is described and the framework conditions that are important for telling and reading picture books are described.

In the second part of the work, a distinction is made between viewing picture books and reading aloud, and the advantages and effects of these are worked out. The role of the relationship between parent and child or between educator and child is described in more detail.

The language acquisition of the child is then described, as well as the conditions that a child needs to take up language. How a child's language develops and when a child starts their first attempts at speaking, as well as the meaning of the picture book for this, is interpreted in the context of language use and cognitive development. Subsequent studies should prove these results and show how important picture books are for the development of children.

In the last part of the work, the previous results and studies are either supported or refuted by a new survey. The qualitative survey and the results resulting from it are placed in the context of language acquisition and the child's identity formation. Since the scope of this work is limited, gender-specific differences are not considered, nor are multilingual children and children with a migration background. The focus of this work is therefore solely on the results of all children - with and without a migration background - who have experienced a picture book situation. Their parents and teachers, who supported them in this, were also included.

2. Current state of research

There are a large number of studies that deal with language acquisition by children or even support programs that are intended to provide suggestions for language and storytelling support in day-care centers. However, there is no specific study that has focused and dealt with the influence of looking at and / or reading picture books on language acquisition in children. There is a lot of research into picture books, as they make up a large part of the learning process in school.

The book author Reinbert Tabbert therefore refers to a special playful charm in picture books and shows that the multiple perspectives and the understanding of symbols are useful for the own process of meaning formation, which in turn is important for language acquisition in children. He also shows that the attitude and the approach of the reader have a positive effect in a dialogic reading situation, since contradictions between text and image stimulate the child to think and formulate through targeted questions. It develops further possibilities of interpreting the image and the text and thus expands the understanding of language and text.[1] "The data can be used to exemplarily document that aesthetically sophisticated contemporary picture books in particular offer elementary school children considerable potential for experience and development, which is not least fed by an attentive perception of images."[2] In order to mobilize these stimuli and also competencies in a child, picture books must meet special criteria. “Simplicity”, “comprehensibility” and “child-friendly” should be given so that the picture book can also be understood as a medium for promoting language and later reading. In order to collect further empirical data, there is a lack of information on the reception possibilities of children when dealing with picture books in general. It is therefore difficult to say to what extent picture books help children adopt, process and learn from foreign ideas and cultures.

A nameless survey that dealt with reading to children first in order to then let them occupy themselves with the picture book on their own put the experimenter in a moderating role so that the child is not left entirely on its own. The following results were found in this survey: The children encountered the situations with great curiosity, tended to be personally entangled with the story in the picture book and their experiences, dealt intensively and productively with the images and the texts and acted on their own initiative. For the most part, they took on the active role and the experimenter gradually withdrew from the role of moderator.[3]

The PERLE study, which deals with the personality and learning development of primary school children, is similar. In this study, the requirement for the children is that they understand the page and the heading and can simplify the language so that they can tell it freely. Here, too, the child is again an active designer and the reference person, in this case the teacher, the moderator, who should move away as far as possible, provided that the child can meet the requirements on his own. The presentation should be less complicated and simple, as one should use the potentials that emerge in the picture book, such as aesthetics and poetics, as they open up an opportunity for the learning process. Furthermore, the importance of the picture becomes apparent, since in most reading situations pictures are shown only fleetingly and as a minor gesture, without the children being able to fully perceive them. The subsequent conversations and discussions usually do not lead to the desired success, as children can draw a lot of information from the pictures and they use this to complete the text, as pictures often complement the text.[4]

In 2012, the authors and researchers Susan Neuman and Donna Celano wrote about the difficulties and requirements of language acquisition in their book “Giving our children a fighting chance”. In their 2006 survey, they found that some children have an almost unmatchable knowledge advantage because their family of origin read 40 times more than in other families. Unfortunately, there are no more detailed insights into these surveys, which is why no conclusions can be drawn about this result.[5]

"International research results speak for themselves when it comes to the importance of picture books for the development of children."[6] In many countries, picture books have consistently positive effects on language acquisition and on other children's skills. An Australian research group found that "Children who grow up with picture books have advantages in terms of linguistic skills."[7] This means that language knowledge is not the same as language skills, but children recognize patterns, can classify statements grammatically correctly and try to articulate themselves. With the picture books, children learn to pick up speech and understand acquired utterances, but they are not yet able to use them.

Furthermore, there are many initiatives that are intended to motivate children and adults to deal with picture books. "Reading Foundation", "Germany Reads Aloud" or the "Nationwide Reading Day" give the picture book enormous learning and support potential. No surveys or studies have been carried out in this regard, but these initiatives have produced quantitative and qualitative results. In general, it can therefore be said that the influence of the picture book has an effect on the child's social, cultural and linguistic skills and that reading aloud contributes to social integration and the later curiosity about learning to read. Which competencies can be specifically addressed and expanded will become apparent in the further course of this work.

3. Excursus on definition of child

Since in this work the child is often in the context of the research question of how a child acquires language, the term should be clearly defined. According to the official laws of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child is considered and designated as such if it has not yet reached the age of 18. In legal terms, this definition is written differently. Accordingly, a child is defined as such as long as it has not yet reached the age of 14.[8] So it turns out that the definitions can vary, but this work works with the legal definition. When language acquisition is mentioned in children, this can apply up to the age of 14, although research has shown that language acquisition is mature by the age of 10.

4. Explanation of terms picture book

The picture book has a long tradition in children's and youth literature. Although nowadays audiovisual media are replacing picture books in many families, it still shows enormous potential that cannot be replaced by other media.[9] Although the tension that can be traced back to the change in media consumption and today's society is growing steadily, the picture book does not lose its expressiveness.[10] Because “Picture books are much more than visually supported narratives or textually commented picture series. Picture books are cultural transformers of symbolic and imaginary worlds. "[11]

Generally speaking, the picture book is described as a medium of many pictures and little text, so that it is understandable for the little ones. But there are different types of picture books that are intended to appeal to different target groups. The picture book links image and text in such a way that it leaves scope to deviate from the actual story or to reinterpret the images. Since 1990, the picture book has also been linked to the conveyance of pedagogically relevant content and focuses on this. It now conveys initial literary experiences that are intended to form a bridge to literature in school. Picture books can help arouse interest in literature and ensure that children in the second level of education, elementary school, have no difficulties understanding books and realizing their potential.[12] "Literacy" is often used in relation to picture books, which is why the following explains why these two terms are related and what "literacy" means.

4.1 Literacy

As a generic term, “literacy” describes a multitude of competencies: enjoying reading, dealing with texts and stories, dealing with books, linguistic and narrative skills, interpreting symbols and images as well as dealing with new media such as notebooks, tablets and the Internet and television.[13] Picture books therefore contribute to the understanding of literacy, which is why the importance of picture books is again emphasized here. "The sensitive phases for acquiring literacy-related skills are in the age range from zero to six years."[14] It is precisely in this age range that children experience their first picture book situations. For this reason, the design of such a situation and the results resulting from it are important for the development of the child and his or her academic success.

In order to make literacy possible, children should gather a lot of previous experience with books, and this is only possible if the parents decide on a "literacy education". An American survey has shown that some children have an almost insurmountable knowledge advantage and this is due to family reading. Picture books are essential for literacy. For this reason, there is a close connection between picture books and literacy, which have a special interaction.[15]

4.2 Types of picture books

There is a wide variety of picture books and each age range has a special picture book that adapts to the child's cognitive realities. This is how picture books and children's needs develop with age. Basically, however, a distinction is made between elementary, feeling and topic-oriented picture books. These main groups can then in turn be subdivided into different types of picture books such as pop-up books, sound books, fairy tale books, puzzle books, non-fiction books or hidden object books.[16] Picture books are very diverse and individual, which is why picture books are considered companions of childhood and influence the child's world.

4.2.1 Elementary picture books

This term covers books that describe basic things and illustrate everyday objects for children in an easy and understandable manner. These picture books are designed for the youngest children between the ages of zero and three years and are intended to help children slowly approach books. These books are mostly made of sturdy cardboard so that they are sturdy and stable, so that children can play with them or bite on them, as children of this age group want to explore a lot. Children gain their first experiences and can quickly identify the objects depicted, such as a cuddly toy, as these images are familiar to them and they have already had experiences with them. The elementary books mostly include pop-up books, noise books and hidden object books, as these are not too complex and encourage children to repeat them with short texts or rhymes.[17]

4.2.2 Sensing books

As the name suggests, the children can feel something. Often animals are illustrated in these books that are decorated with colorful fabrics so that children can feel them.Feeler books are suitable for children between the ages of zero and three, as children in this age range want to touch and feel a lot. By touching and feeling, children experience a new kind of picture books and have a lot of fun with them, which in turn means that they learn quickly. In this picture book situation, children learn individual sounds or words. Children learn to discover their world through play and to experience it with all their senses. The parents can imitate the animal noises here and will quickly notice that the child quickly links these sounds with the right animals, due to which they were able to establish a link between image and word through touch and feel.

4.2.3 Themed picture books

These types include storybooks or non-fiction books that address a special situation. These books are suitable for children ages three to six and beyond because these books require good attention and allow children to concentrate for a period of time when they are read or told. These picture books are often chosen to explain new situations to children, such as visiting the dentist, and to relieve them of a certain fear, if it exists. Often, topics such as the separation of parents are also presented in a book, as they often occur in children's everyday lives. They should give the children consolation and understanding, but also possible ways of dealing with these difficult situations. The situations discussed in the picture books are often commonplace, which is why the children can quickly identify with the characters shown and better empathize with feelings. Non-fiction books also include children's encyclopedias and books in which your own body is explained in an easy and understandable way.

4.3 Picture book design

A picture book is designed in such a way that it can be used by children who cannot yet read and write. The text is short and memorable and the images are realistic and brightly colored so that the children's interest is piqued. The limited number of images and text puts the focus on the essential content and is age-adapted and identity-centered, so that the child can identify with the book more quickly.[18] The design of the picture book shows itself in its experience-relatedness, openness, diversity and subjectification.[19] Difficult content can be simplified with simple texts and meaningful images and are therefore more clear. The change from different perspectives from the fictional person in the picture book also enables the child to have different perspectives on their own events and experiences. In the picture books, the stories can be told from different perspectives, which can be divided into three forms: an overview of the situation, an understanding of a situation and an outside view that leaves little room for emotions to develop.[20]

4.4 Influence of the pictures

Viewing and dealing with the images is of enormous importance for the child, as it influences the understanding of the image and is a "central enrichment for promoting image and text reading in the preschool and school context"[21] represent. The famous quote from Fred R. Barnard: "A picture is worth a thousand words" refers to the diversity and potential of pictures. It is true that it is claimed that the picture in itself is not sufficient to understand the context, since children understand the meaning of the pictures from what is read aloud. It is therefore assumed that children do not learn from the pictures, but from the text.[22] However, this assumption has been refuted by encouraging children to use textless visual narratives. When looking at pictures, an "expansion of the child's horizon of expectation and interpretation"[23], as well as a better understanding of the text and imagination.

Textless picture books also focus on the picture, which makes the pictures more expressive. Every child learns to understand the images and then to interpret them. Textless narration also has the advantage that the child can only open up the gaps between the images by looking at the previous images. The imagination is stimulated more, since the posture and the arrangement of the figures alone are not enough to understand images and to develop their context.[24]

In general, looking at the pictures is motivating and demanding at the same time, whereby the child learns to see pictures in a context that is mostly meaningful for the children's willingness to tell stories in the subsequent conversation. Images can arouse associations with previous experiences and encourage children to try out new things and to reflect on their own experiences and actions.[25] “However, children do not make isolated perceptions. They experience the world in pictures and scenes from their everyday experience. They store such scenes in their memory and recognize such situations again as soon as they reappear in a similar way. These memories also have a meaning, the scenes are emotionally "marked". "[26] In addition to these aspects, there is also the explanation and communication of gender roles, wisdom, morals and values. It is true that the teaching of gender roles should be viewed critically, as this can lead to a stuck opinion. Because of this, such complex images and topics should only be treated with a certain cognitive ability.

Furthermore, images have an intentionality that leads to emotions being recognized and understood. When children gain this understanding, they can also extend this to their surroundings and thus avoid possible problem situations that arise if they recognize the emotions of the other children. The extended empathy behavior sensitizes the children to disputes.[27] An example of this is an argument between two children over a doll. If the child is familiar with emotions and sees one child being sad and angry, they will avoid this argument by leaving the doll to the other child. The perception is very formative and leads to a mostly successful conflict resolution. Not only understanding emotions, but also dealing with one's own feelings is important. Images can awaken and articulate one's own hidden feelings. In addition, pictures function as a kind of “role model” in which pictures show and describe situations. In this way, the child is taught special manners to be able to solve difficult situations. On the one hand, they experience motor development, which includes the ability to reflect and experiment, and on the other hand, the quality of the images is crucial. It turns out that both the social and the cognitive skills of the child develop by simply looking at the pictures.[28]

4.5 Influence of the texts

In most picture books, the text is greatly reduced so that the children can focus better on the pictures and look at them carefully and interpret them. Therefore, in most picture books, the text is of secondary importance, although the text also promises to have an immense influence. The text in the picture books is often adapted to the child's language level and thus bypasses complex sentences and words. The child therefore learns literary aesthetic skills as long as it focuses on the text. Text structures become visible and the child develops first approaches to understand texts and to interpret them correctly. They acquire knowledge of literary forms such as poetry and make their first poetic experiences with onomatopoeia, rhymes or repetitions. The text is used to stimulate the child's processes of understanding and to understand the interplay between text and image.

Furthermore, it experiences the emotions of the fictional character and becomes part of the story by learning to adopt perspectives and transfer them to their own environment. Understanding others and understanding multiple perspectives and changing perspectives are also challenged by the text. Basically, the text should stimulate amazement and questioning so that the child can reproduce the text in their own words.[29] The way in which the text is presented or narrated naturally plays a key role here, as the child can only be encouraged in all of the above-mentioned skills if the narrator presents the text in a child-friendly manner. A clear pronunciation, adaptation to the child's language level and avoidance of complex foreign words are beneficial for this. Of course, all of these things can lead to a combination of negative experiences even if they are disregarded. If a book is perceived as too complex or too "scary" by the child, it always associates books with an uncomfortable feeling that it is quickly linked to negative experiences. It is therefore important to ensure that the picture books and the texts printed in them are always adapted to the child and that they have a beneficial effect.

5. Picture book viewing methodology

“Picture books play an important role in children's lives. The foundation for a positive development of children is laid in the first years of life. In addition to the family, which plays the most important role in this, care settings such as day-care centers are also of central importance. Whether and to what extent a child can develop his or her potential depends heavily on the quality of suggestions in the family and in the day-care center that a child attends. "[30] Since picture books are unfortunately often used "indiscriminately" by parents because they don’t worry about pedagogical issues, the use of picture books in day-care centers is more effective. In a picture-book situation, it is important to carry out this in a well-considered setting so that the child learns to switch off from everyday life and to get involved in a new situation. So all senses can be expanded and more content can be processed.

5.1 Selection of picture books

Unlike the parents, educators make a pedagogically justified selection of the book because they want to use it to promote development. Picture book viewing can be designed in different ways. On the one hand, the picture book can be used as a whole or individual pages that have a methodological focus. Picture books can be used for dialogical reading or for pure viewing. However, picture books are often made freely available to every child in a reading corner in kindergarten. The children can therefore look at the book or “read” it unaccompanied, depending on the child's cognitive abilities. This form leads the children to act independently and deal with literature. Since the picture book situation in itself has enormous educational value, one should be careful not to overload this situation with other educational measures.[31]

Furthermore, children have positive experiences when choosing a book when they are taken to the library or a bookstore and are allowed to choose a book. The books chosen by the children often do not correspond to the expectations of the parents or the educators, as they do not appear to be "educationally valuable", but the children experience a valuable experience: They have a say and feel that their needs are perceived and fulfilled.[32]

When choosing a book, the age of the child, as well as their cognitive abilities and experience, are decisive. For babies and toddlers, it is therefore advisable to take a picture book made of sturdy cardboard so that the child has the opportunity to play with it or to put it in their mouth. Here there is not yet any communication between the adult and the child, rather it is about pure stimulation and discovery.

The first naming actions begin with feeler books, as there is often a picture printed on one side, which prompts the adult to comment on this. In feeling books, children are more likely to experience the connection between properties and their designation. This develops when the caregiver asks how the fur feels that has been felt. The first dialogues then develop from these questions. Books that have to be pulled apart or opened are also great as this increases the children's motivation to deal with the stories.[33] “Children have the most fun when they can experience the tension of the story up close, that is, actively discover it page by page. It is ideal if you can set the pace yourself by turning the pages yourself. This leaves you enough time to explore the many options, to process the images and linguistic information. "[34]

From the age of 3 onwards, the books can become more demanding and convey values ​​and experiences. Set picture books are suitable for this, as they offer a good overview of everyday situations. For children between four and seven years of age, picture book stories that have a relatively large amount of text are suitable, because this is how the children learn to expand their vocabulary. In general, however, you can define three criteria that make a good children's book: age-appropriate material and format, appealing illustrations and child-friendly actions and topics.[35]

5.2 Framework conditions

In order for the child to benefit from a picture book viewing situation, certain conditions must be created. The child must be involved in a fixed framework so that they are not distracted or torn out of the situation. The situation should offer closeness, affection and security and give the child the certainty that there is trust, no matter in which respect. It must be taken into account that the child can see the pictures well, the light does not dazzle in any way and the child can seek physical contact if they want to. The physical contact offers the child a kind of security, especially with stories and pictures that they perceive as threatening or frightening. If several children are able to look at a picture book, it must be ensured that everyone has a suitable seat. However, the situation in a large group can mean that not every child has enough time to look at the pictures. An intimate and relaxed situation can usually not arise in this way. In order to make use of the influence of the picture book, the situation should be designed individually and intensively, because this is the only way to achieve later successes.[36]

5.3 Storytelling and reading aloud

The terms storytelling and reading aloud are fundamentally different from each other. While the narrator speaks freely and can maintain eye contact with the child, the reader, on the other hand, is bound to the text and the book. The constant eye contact between the narrator and the child enables a quick and immediate reaction to certain situations, such as repeating or explaining misunderstandings. Therefore, storytelling has a significant advantage over reading aloud. The child can get involved in the conversation more quickly when telling the story and can change from a passive listener to an active narrator. Nevertheless, the ability to concentrate is trained and the imagination is stimulated while telling the story and reading aloud. What is read or told offers the children special templates for their own reproduction of impressions or thoughts, which can be stored in the children's memory through repetition. Furthermore, when listening to stories, some action patterns of the fictional characters in the book can be compared with your own life and action structures.

Since the children in kindergarten are confronted with the experiences and statements of other children, children also experience patterns of behavior outside the family, which can be made more understandable through stories. In general, many social skills are acquired in the various types of picture book situations, which can be expressed in empathy, communication skills, conflict management, critical skills and / or the ability to work in a team. The children learn to understand, question and explain certain things. The information obtained is prepared and processed so that it can be used over the long term. Active listening is the basis of conflict management, since children in a conflict have to listen to the other party and learn to deal with a conflict objectively, which requires respect and tolerance.

The early start of a designed picture book situation can be pioneering, as basic cultural and social skills are taught. Last but not least, this encourages their own storytelling and increases the child's language skills. Nevertheless, when narrating and reading aloud, care should be taken to avoid complicated words and to replace them with understandable words. If the vocabulary and narrative structure are appropriate for the child and are maintained throughout the reading and narration, then no difficulties should arise.[37] In addition to the social skills described above, development-specific skills are also promoted. These include the ability to generate images internally through storytelling, symbolic thinking, learning to speak language and memorizing complex and new sentence patterns.[38]

6. Picture book viewing

Not only the reading of the texts from the picture books has an enormous influence on the children, but also the design and the connection of picture and text. When looking at them, however, the child has no linguistic role model that can help to understand the images in connection with the text. It is therefore important for the child to be able to recognize and understand the shapes and symbols in the pictures in order to draw conclusions about a possible context. This is made possible for the child by linking his experiences with the events in the pictures. Thus, the perception is strengthened and the child can build an emotional bond to it. If, however, the motif in the picture book is unknown to the child because it is possibly depicted unrealistically, the child cannot identify with the motif and thus does not develop a bond.[39] This can lead to possible misinterpretations of the symbol, which is why an adult or someone you trust should preferably be present to support the child. In addition to the motif, the complexity of an image and its density are important.[40] Just looking at it, the child has to recognize and interpret the connections. Children with poor cognitive abilities will therefore find it difficult to put pictures in a correct order and to understand their meaning. Simply looking at a picture book is therefore suitable for children with good cognitive skills such as understanding symbols and the ability to interpret, as otherwise it can lead to excessive demands. Brain research is trying to find out how exactly the images of children are recorded and processed.

6.1 Processing processes from the point of view of brain research

“Picture books, as the name suggests, live to a large extent from pictures. But these images have to be recorded, i.e. received, in order to be able to develop their effect. "[41] Visual perception, i.e. looking at an image, begins in the eye, but is only processed in the brain. The image we are looking at is perceived as a whole at the beginning and transported via the retina, but on the way to the brain it is reduced to its most important elements in order to be better processed. Our brain now processes the information in parallel and at the same time in different cortical areas that can provide signals from previous knowledge. The image is compared with previous information, symbols or previous experiences that are stored in the brain. Now the process of processing and assignment begins, as the cortical areas store different feelings, senses, expectations, information and stimuli in a differentiated manner from one another.[42]

6.2 Viewing and telling

As it turns out, just looking at a picture is very complex for children, so it is important when the parents or other confidante deal with the children and a picture book together. In this way, the child can more easily grasp the connection between words and images and interpret relationships better and process them correctly. Since the child is understood as an active "constructor" of himself, the child should be looked at and told as best he can by himself.

The purpose of telling the story is merely to arouse the imagination and the desire to speak. In contrast to reading aloud, this has the advantage that the text is individual and can vary. The child can help shape the story and the content of the story can be expanded by the child at any time. The pictures can be included better and more easily and the child has the opportunity to change the actual story and interpret the pictures differently. Another advantage of free storytelling is that frightening texts from a picture book can be avoided and a new story can emerge with the pictures. When telling the story, it is important that the narrator links the story and the images well and that the child has an active say. Suggestions or requests should be addressed and the child should be encouraged to speak by asking what can be seen in the picture. This gives the child the opportunity to ask questions about unfamiliar symbols and learn new words.

6.3 roles of looking at the child's development

Special cognitive and social-emotional prerequisites are required so that the child can develop further by simply looking at picture books. The perception and also the interpretation of the symbols in the pictures are important in order to understand what these pictures mean and what interpretation can be behind them. In addition, children should be able to distinguish between the shapes and symbols in order to create clear structures. If a child has managed to recognize a picture or a motif and to perceive its structure, they will try to point at the pictures while looking at a picture book together to find out how this motif or object is named. In this way, they learn to start the first naming activities and to establish a connection with the adult or the person of trust, as they notice that an interaction for development serves as an aid. Furthermore, children learn to extract important information from the pictures, which they use to expand their vocabulary and to begin their first attempts at interpretation. At around two to three years old, children understand the meaning and benefits of a picture book. You can quickly recognize when a picture is unrealistic and thus learn that a shown picture does not always have to be accepted as long as it makes no sense. The understanding of symbols is so well developed that children know that a picture is both an object in itself and that it also stands for something. They also now have a grasp of images, letters and numbers and can differentiate them from one another and assign them to categories. In this way they learn to understand letters and numbers, which contributes to the development of the written language. In addition to these initial stages of development, they also begin to develop an understanding of emotions in images. They recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gestures and spatial composition and interpret them to interpret emotions.

Children can also understand the meaning of colors, because they perceive dark colors as oppressive and light colors interpret them as lively. In developmental psychology, viewing picture books is ascribed to three important factors that must be fulfilled for the child to develop positively and successfully: First, the child with its cognitive and affective prerequisites; secondly, the specific picture book and thirdly, the parents who look at and read the book with the child. These factors can influence the development of the child separately, but also in combination.[43]

7. Reading a picture book

“Reading picture books is more than just looking at pictures. When a child - regardless of their age - looks at pictures with a caregiver, they often get to know new terms and there are opportunities for discussion, which in turn are important for cognitive and emotional development. "[44] The relationship between picture book reading and the child's language development is a consistent finding based on the frequency of reading and the start of reading. The parents play the greatest role in reading aloud, because they are the ones who read, comment or tell the picture book. If you give the children the opportunity to name objects, the children also acquire new words and / or grammar, provided that they are spoken in full sentences and contexts. Especially around the time children start to speak, from Aug. 8-30. Month, parents should read to their children, as the vocabulary increases steadily during this time and the children have a great thirst for knowledge.

7.1 Functions of reading

7.1.1 Cultural function

In addition to the functions of language acquisition and general cognitive and emotional development, reading aloud should fulfill a social and cultural function. In order for the child to be able to enter the social community more easily, he or she must be familiar with general cultural and social circumstances. By reading aloud, the child should learn to speak and later to write. Since reading is the key to key social competence, reading a picture book can serve as a spring. Furthermore, the child is empowered to express himself and to communicate with others in an appropriate way. In general, all cultural and literary traditions should be passed on to the child through reading aloud.[45]

7.1.2 Literary-aesthetic function

Reading aloud also has a literary-aesthetic function, because the parents are reading role models for the children and should familiarize the children with literature. Interest and curiosity for literature should be aroused in order to offer children positive experiences with picture books. Parents can achieve this if they make the reading as interesting as possible and involve the children in the selection of picture books. Often the foundation stone is laid here to maintain interest in books for later life. Aesthetics are also important, as they are strengthened by reading situations. The children learn to perceive things and to evaluate them in their beauty, nature and art. This means that a child makes criteria dependent on why a book is tasteful and appealing or why it is not.[46]

7.1.3 Cognitive function

As the children read aloud they have the opportunity to listen carefully and relax. This eliminates the need to decode the text themselves, which is why the children have more processing capacity for understanding. This makes it easier to filter the information and then process it in order to save it for the long term and make it available again at any time. The memory function is expanded and relationships between features are established. In addition, listening and concentration are trained and basic everyday skills are taught. The child develops a feeling for how everyday life can be designed and how possible problems can be solved.

From the age of four, the linguistic-cognitive prerequisite for understanding the “level of consciousness” of stories develops, whereby the children can empathize and understand the feelings, wishes and intentions of the fictional protagonist.[47] The perception of oneself and one's surroundings is strengthened and sensitized. The children have a better sensitivity for how other children feel when, for example, arguments arise in kindergarten. You can put yourself in other people's shoes and develop other people's perspectives. The first approaches to solving small disputes take place here. The emotions conveyed in picture books form the basis for this, as compassion is explained and conveyed in certain picture books. Furthermore, the understanding of the text is trained and the ability to concentrate on the text is trained.[48]

7.1.4 Emotional function

When the children are read to, they find themselves in a relaxation phase in which they can fully concentrate on the book and its story. The children are concentrated, but can still listen in a relaxed manner without anything being expected from them. You will enjoy the fact that books help to relax and that enthusiasm for them grows. The children are curious and positive when their parents read to them. A good and pleasant reading atmosphere supports the positive atmosphere between the reader and the listener and thus forms an emotional bond that is strengthened by reading situations. But not only an emotional bond between the child and its parent can arise, but also an emotional bond between the child and the book. Many children have a favorite book because they can identify with the book or with the person in the story. Children often learn to distinguish between emotions such as sadness, anger, joy, fear, love and joy.[49]

7.1.5 Communicative function

The general purpose of reading aloud is to encourage the children to speak and tell stories. Therefore, the child should be given the opportunity to ask questions about the text, even if they interrupt the reading. The child should actively participate in communication and be able to develop freely. The reader can encourage the child to speak by asking specific questions, and this initial questioning often results in a new story or long communication between the reader and the listener. The children are becoming more and more courageous to speak and are not afraid to ask for the new words and then use them. The children show a certain pride when they have learned new words and then want to show it. It is therefore important that after reading the story, speak to the children again about the story and the words that appeared in it.

This is also continued in school, in which the children are supposed to start a “follow-up discussion” after a text has been read out, in which they are supposed to exchange ideas and express their opinion. Here, too, open questions can be answered or misunderstandings can be clarified.[50]

7.1.6 Reflexive function

Since in the literature there is always an expression of life plans in the represented figures and actions, these are indirectly put up for debate. The children should empathize with feelings, reflect on their experiences or their way of thinking and imagining. It is about dealing with oneself and nature, as John Locke had understood it since the 17th century. By reading aloud, the child develops precise ideas, which are consolidated by reading aloud and which stimulate the child to think, doubt or justify. All of this is related to the feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction that form the basis of morality. The child thinks not only about his actions, but also about those of others.

Thus, picture books or reading books in general provide the first incentives for reflection. The life situations and circumstances can be emulated and evaluated. Through a variety of literary encounters, you experience life plans that give you the potential to shape your own life and expand your own ideas. In follow-up communication, the children learn how to start reflecting and evaluating, as they are stimulated to think and empathize. Later in school, the process of reflection becomes even more pronounced, as children are often encouraged to reflect in literary conversations and assignments.[51]

7.2 Conditions for successful reading

Successful reading can only be said to have been achieved when set goals have been met. The primary goal is to establish good, adaptive communication between the person speaking and the reader. It is important to captivate the listener from reading aloud, so that you can have a good follow-up discussion later because you were listening with concentration. In order to achieve this, the reader should have certain language characteristics, which can be subdivided into para- and extraverbal means of expression. The linguist Kati Hannken-Illjes said the following: “The special thing about being read aloud (as opposed to listening to an audio book) is that the presence of the reading person means that not only the words, but above all the voice conveying them, are theirs Posture and tension, their facial expressions and gestures are perceptible and also convey meaning. "[52]

7.2.1 Paraverbal means of expression

The paraverbal means of expression include the pitch, the speaking melody, the volume, the articulation clarity, the tempo and the use of pauses. When reading aloud, care should be taken to ensure that you speak at a calm but understandable volume, that the words are always pronounced clearly and distinctly and that the pace of reading is not too fast and not too slow, but is adapted to the child. It is similar when dividing the breaks. When reading aloud, the breaks should be chosen by the child. In the meantime, the reader must ensure that the child is not overwhelmed while reading. Difficult words or difficulties in understanding can be discussed during the breaks. The child often signals when it is overwhelmed. Therefore, one should pay attention to the child's body language and facial expressions at all times. However, the pauses should not be too long, but should only be used to clarify questions or to create a “breather” for the reader, although this can be avoided if the reader is reading slowly. The more melodic the reading, the higher the likelihood that the child will sink into what is being read and listen attentively. It is also important here that monotonous reading cannot encourage this, as children need a certain amount of tension. By changing the voice in dialogues, the desire to listen can be increased.[53]

7.2.2 Non- and extraverbal means of expression

In addition to the paraverbal means of expression, there are also non-verbal or extraverbal means of expression, which include body posture, movement, tension, facial expressions and gestures. The eye contact is of course also important, as is the proxemics, i.e. the behavior in the room.When reading aloud, it is important that the reader builds an open posture towards the listener, otherwise they will not feel accepted and communication cannot take place. The posture gives the listener a signal of self-confidence and interest. If the legs are crossed, for example, it radiates insecurity and nervousness. This would affect the child as children are very sensitive to such language. The posture therefore always conveys a feeling that is concise for the child who is being read. In addition to posture, body movement and body tension play an important role, since here, too, the child is signaled about the state of mind of the reader and how he feels.[54] The physiological condition should therefore be considered in advance so as not to give the child false impressions and feelings. Negative attitudes and inner tension are transferrable, which is why a reading situation might not promise the desired success. Eye contact is also important. This should be maintained during the entire reading, as it can convey the emotions, moods or intentions of the reader. With children with little perception, looks can often be misinterpreted, which is why it is important to support looks with facial expressions and gestures. Because with facial expressions and gestures, the emotions of the reader can be transferred to the child, but the story can also be made more understandable. If a child is unsure how the person acting in the book feels, they will often seek eye contact with the reader and use it as a safeguard. The child is looking for confirmation that the reader can support with facial expressions and gestures.

Para- and extraverbal means of expression such as voice, speaking, physicality and intention function in every communication and reading situation. This combination enables an appropriate reading situation based on verbal means of expression such as vocabulary and grammar. Therefore, these means of expression should be clarified again before the reading situation.[55]

7.2.3 External framework conditions

In addition to the audible speaking-vocal level of expression and the visible physical level of expression, there are external framework conditions that belong to the reading situation. The selection of the room, the seating, the manuscript, the acoustics and the lighting play an important role. In a reading situation, the child should be given the opportunity to calm down and escape from everyday life. It is therefore advisable to look for a quiet room that offers few incentives. In the kindergarten, these can be the relaxation rooms that the children use to escape from the noisy and restless everyday life of the kindergarten. If the reading situation is between a parent and a child, you should therefore try to choose the most neutral room in the house so that the child does not have difficulty concentrating from other influences. The quieter and more neutral the room, the greater the attention given and the ability to concentrate. The lighting in the room should be bright enough so that the reader has no problems recognizing the text from the picture book. But it shouldn't be too bright, because a subdued light tends to make the child calm down and feel comfortable and safe. For the reader, however, dimmed light has the disadvantage that he has to concentrate hard and poor room lighting is stressful for the eyes. A combination of direct and indirect light is therefore recommended.[56]

In order to develop a pleasant atmosphere for both participants in the conversation, the seating should be of secondary importance, because when you sit with the child at a table and read to the child, it appears to the child as if you want to challenge them and expect something from them. The atmosphere is like a school situation in which a teacher sits down next to the child and discusses mistakes with him. Therefore you should give the child the space it needs.

Children give the reader a sense of understanding and show whether they are comfortable or not. Therefore, when designing the manuscript, the reader should divide the book or text into good sections. It is important to know in advance what the child's psychological state is in order not to under- or overstrain the child with reading aloud. Room acoustics can also make a child feel overwhelmed. This can happen if the room has a strong influence on the intelligibility of the spoken language and therefore the spoken language does not reach the listener clearly. The child must therefore concentrate heavily on what is being said and thus reduce his or her ability to absorb new information. It is therefore important to ask the child whether what is being said can be heard.[57]

7.3 Effects of reading

Reading aloud, but also telling stories, has the primary function of getting children to think. This is intended by the reader by making sure that the text fulfills a certain intention. Here, too, it shows how important the selection of the book is. In addition to this intention, reading the text aloud is intended to promote the ability to understand the text, but also the ability to recognize the knowledge of the type of text, which is very difficult, especially with small children between the ages of three and six. However, they can tell the difference between a non-fiction book and a fairy tale and thus express whether their cognitive abilities are sufficiently developed to be able to understand a non-fiction book.

When preparing the reading, the reader should bring the child closer to what he wants to convey with the text so that he informs, convinces and guides the child throughout the entire time. Another purpose is to understand the meaning a book is trying to convey. Initial misunderstandings should be avoided by reading aloud so that a child can save and process the right intentions. While reading, the child should understand the facial expressions and gestures of his counterpart and be able to react to them. In this way, it learns to implement and process the first intentions of facial expressions and gestures in order to use them later in life. Since emotions are supportive in a reading situation, in order to captivate the child emotionally on the one hand and to build a bond and stable relationship with the child on the other. The involvement of emotions offers enormous potential to promote the child individually and according to his needs.

The child can be influenced in his or her actions and opinions through the presentation of certain facts in the book. There are many problem-centered books that try to empower children to deal with problems. For children with speech problems or speech impaired children, there are a variety of books that deal with these problems and want to show the children that they are not alone with the problems and that there is a solution for everything. The strengthening of the personality and the understanding and handling of such conflict situations should be improved. But self-confidence and acceptance should also be strengthened so that the children do not develop fears or exacerbate existing fears. In addition to these prevention intentions, general skills should of course also emerge from reading aloud. This includes strengthening perception, stimulating reflection and conviction, as well as awakening understanding. Furthermore, the child should be encouraged to think about the content and to project this onto his own experiences. If the child's interest has been aroused, the probability is very high that they can identify with the text and deal with the text. Reading aloud can, however, also serve to introduce a new topic and slowly bring it closer to the child and make it understandable. Just as it is used in school to slowly get children used to reading and writing, some picture books can be used to make parents' separation situations easier to understand, as these are difficult to make children understand, as children often do not understand why their parents split up.

Picture books can not only stimulate the imagination, but also have a calming effect on the little ones who cannot be transported through other situations. By combining this experience and understanding, you get a feeling for hearing and a feeling for the subtleties of the book. You learn to implement what you have just learned correctly and notice the effect on yourself. In the case of coping problems, picture books can also act as a kind of “role model”, as the fictional character from the picture book shows how problems can be solved. The use of picture books has an enormous effect on the child's cognitive abilities, as well as on their development and personality.[58]

7.4 Reading aloud as the basis of a sustainable relationship

How important reading aloud is for the relationship between the child and his or her caregiver, be it a parent, the kindergarten teacher or another trusted person, is shown again and again. With regard to the parent-child relationship, it has been shown that reading situations are beneficial, since the parents simply “talk longer, more complex and in greater detail when looking at picture books together than in other situations, such as when playing, and that they respond more frequently to the child's utterances come in. "[59] With the full attention that is directed towards the child, the parents manage to establish a connection with the child and to consolidate this connection. In play situations, the parents try to teach the children new vocabulary and to challenge the children, but the relationship does not strengthen that much. When reading aloud, you try to ignore everyday life and calm down, and it is precisely this calm that the child needs in order to establish closeness to the parents. Furthermore, common goals strengthen the relationship and with the support of the parents, the child can be brought up to be independent. Trust plays an important role here, as trust is the basis for a sustainable relationship. In the reading situation, the child must have the feeling that they can trust their parents and that mistakes are not sanctioned but tolerated. However, the focus should always be on respect, affection, freedom, support and love, as these contribute to the core of the child's development and the development of the relationship.[60]

7.5 Reading aloud as a special form of dialogue

In contrast to classic reading, dialogic reading is an active form of dialogue for children and adults. While in classical reading the children tend to listen passively and dialogues between the adult and the child tend to take place rarely, in dialogical reading the reader and the listener are active creators. The dialogic reading aloud enables a constant interaction, as special impulses are set by asking questions that stimulate the child to answer and tell stories. In contrast to traditional reading, it is desirable here that the child object and contribute to the text, as this signals that there is an interest in what is being read or presented. The children's contributions are taken up and can be integrated and expanded, which gives the child the feeling of having made an important contribution. The child can become the narrator of the story and use the actual narrator as support, who helps to get the statements right and encourages the child to use their own words and to develop new stories.

In dialogic reading, all those involved are in constant interaction, whereby the adult should behave more passively so that childish expressions can come to the fore. By praising the child and highlighting their skills, they feel valued and motivated. The child loses his inhibitions and is less afraid of expressing himself and can thus record his first speaking experiences. If a reference to everyday life is brought into context, then you build up another “support” for the child and give him support. In addition, the child's speech activity can be stimulated by the adult by including the W questions in the interaction. In this way the child learns to deal with the context and to grasp the content precisely. With the W questions, the child is forced to answer the adult's questions not only with “yes” and “no”, but rather to answer in full sentences. The aim of dialogic learning is to increase and steadily improve the speaking and language skills, whereby the common fun should not be lost. With this form of reading new and positive experiences can be made, which give the child the feeling that they are not afraid of them. With this type of interaction, the child realizes that they are valued because the reader gives them the feeling that they like to take the time to support the child in their language development.[61]

8. Language acquisition of the child

“With the ability to speak, not only the peculiarity of the voice and the way of speaking develop; it also defines the child as a being to whom the environment reacts with changed expression and attention. On the other hand, this environment now expects him to be understood without special explanations and gestures. "[62] In the following, it will therefore be explained which conditions must be fulfilled in the early childhood phase so that the child can express himself correctly, in order to be understood by his environment and how these conditions can be traced back to the development of a child.

8.1 Conditions for recording speech

When language acquisition is spoken of, it can be understood in three different ways. First, the child's ability to express himself verbally in such a way that it conforms to the rules of grammar, and second, the ability to refer to something, to mean something. And thirdly, the function of achieving something through language.[63] The cognitive abilities a child needs for this can already be seen in the first years of life. The child actively shapes his environment and transforms his experiences into means-end structures in order to communicate. In addition, the child is directed to coordination tasks of action, which means that means and ends must be combined in order to achieve the desired goal. Here the child tries to focus on the face, the gestures, the voice or the actions of his caregiver so that he can realize and appropriate them. The child thus copies the behavioral patterns of the caregiver or a trusted person in order to achieve his goals. Research has shown that infants can mimic facial expressions and gestures as early as the first few weeks of life because they have reflected on the behavior. The adult interpersonal response is the most effective enhancer, as is the interaction. According to Jean Piaget, child behavior is not due to the relationship to the adult, but to chance experimentation and growth. This may in part be correct, since the child approaches language with a willingness and order and combines and varies certain structures and experiences with new things. The child systematically tries to find coping strategies. The acquisition of pre-linguistic and linguistic communication takes place mainly in a structured framework, which is always designed by an adult. Here, linguistic elements and social interaction are combined, but conversations are also interpreted in order to aim at certain intentions. The combination of linguistic and non-linguistic situations leads the child to a communication ability that can also be developed through rules and interdependencies. However, the child's perception also plays an important role, as it can recognize differences and transfer them to other areas. Four basic cognitive faculties can be identified as follows: readiness for means-ends, transferability, systematics and abstractness.[64]

8.2 From pre-linguistic communication to language use

The common dialogue between the child and his / her caregiver is fundamental for the use of language, whereby the child can initially only use non-verbal means such as facial expressions, gestures and eye contact in the interaction. But since the child is a communicative intention and has an enormous need to communicate, tries to attract attention by all means. These statements are interpreted by the caregiver and included in dialogue-like structures. In the first months of life, the child has only minimal and undifferentiated means of communicating, which is why the caregiver is dependent on interpretation help. These are expressed during activities such as bathing or breastfeeding.[65] “A dialogue develops when the caregivers convey their interpretations of the utterances to the child in the form of appropriate reactions.The child can agree to the interpretations, reject them, or insist on modification. During this process, the child's utterances are socialized and conventionalized; the child learns to differentiate between different forms of expression. These learning experiences lead to the fact that (!) 'The child knows how to communicate communicatively even before it speaks'. "[66]

In addition to the communicative intention, there is one structure the action situation important because routine is relevant to language acquisition. In game situations, the first interaction patterns are developed, which include reciprocity, role reversal and role assumption, as well as compliance with rules. The adult or the caregiver pursues a specific goal in these game situations, namely that the child learns and develops from these game situations - both verbally and physically. This from the adult " implicit pedagogy " offers the following advantages: new elements can expand and enhance the familiar game situations. On the other hand, the caregiver tries to withdraw further and further in order to hand over the active role of the designer to the child. This situation offers the child the opportunity to get a better understanding of language, which can be traced back to the linguistic exchange between the adult and the child.[67]

Even if the child does not yet have strong communication skills, pointing to an object, supported by utterances, should be able to establish a dialogue. With the help of the dialogue, words can be added to Designation function can be expanded even if the child is not yet able to name or describe objects. "From this it can be concluded that (!) The first child naming services are less based on imitation of the linguistic environment, but rather represent the child's attempt to react to the communicative intentions of the caregiver."[68] So far it has been shown that in addition to these criteria, the A adjustment process on the part of the child and the adult is important so that the child can participate in the game situations. The caregiver adjusts to the child's possibilities so that the level of development and learning progress become visible. The child thus shows how far the adult has to adapt to the child's use of language so that it is not under or overburdened. Often the parents develop a style of speech that is characterized by the term “baby talk”. Although this is often used because it indicates simplifications and clarifications, it is usually not necessary. The adult should therefore adapt to the child's level of development and not take age into account. Only the use of language and how it is dealt with is decisive as to which style of language the parent or the caregiver should use.[69]

[...]



[1] See Gabriela, Scherer; Volz, Steffen: contemporary picture books, pp.109-113.

[2] Gabriela, Scherer; Volz, Steffen: contemporary picture books, p.120.

[3] See Ritter, Alexandra; Ritter, Michael: Schnipselgestrupp, pp.126-133.

[4] See Ritter, Alexandra; Ritter, Michael: Schnipselgestrupp, S.137-144.

[5] Cf. Albers, Timm: Das Bilderbuchbuch, p.19.

[6] Albers, Timm: Das Bilderbuchbuch, p.21.

[7] Ibid.

[8] See BAG: definition.

[9] Cf. Thiele, Jens: picture book aesthetics, p.11.

[10] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.7.

[11] Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.7.

[12] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.10.

[13] Albers, Timm: picture book, p.17.

[14] Albers, Timm: picture book, p.19.

[15] See ibid.

[16] See Paradisi-Redaktion: Bilderbucharten [online].

[17] See Albers, Timm: Bilderbuchbuch, pp.25-27.

[18] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.53.

[19] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.17.

[20] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, pp.65-66.

[21] Thedens, Katrin: Visible in picture books, p.151.

[22] See ibid.

[23] Cf. Kruse, Iris: Questionable picture book, p.17.

[24] Cf. Dammann-Thedens, Katrin: Visible in picture books, p.151-154.

[25] Cf. Dammann-Thedens, Katrin: Visible in picture books, p.167.

[26] Schäfer, Gerd: Aisthetic Thinking, p.32-33.

[27] Cf. Deppner, Martin Roman, childlike identity formation, p.148.

[28] See Schäfer, Gerd: Aisthetic Thinking, p.31-35.

[29] Cf. Hurrelmann, Bettina: Pictures. Books. - Picture books !, pp. 6-10.

[30] Albers, Timm: picture book, p.9.

[31] Cf. Schlinkert, Heinz: picture book viewing.

[32] See Albers, Timm: Bilderbuchbuch, p.25.

[33] Cf. Albers, Timm: picture book book, pp.11-13.

[34] Albers, Timm: picture book, p.13.

[35] Fischer, Rebecca: good picture book.

[36] Schlinkert, Heinz: Methodology of picture book viewing.

[37] Thuringian Literature Council: storytelling and reading [online].

[38] See Gründler, Elisabeth C .: Tell.

[39] See Koerber, Susanne: Developmental Psychology, pp. 40f.

[40] See ibid. P.41.

[41] Fahle, Manfred: Hirnforschung, p.48.

[42] Cf. Fahle, Manfred: Hirnforschung, pp.48-69.

[43] See Koerber, Susanne: Developmental Psychology, p.31-46.

[44] Koerber, Susanne: Developmental Psychology, p.39.

[45] See Belgrad, Jürgen: Learning room reading aloud, p.20.

[46] See Ibid., Pp. 20-21.

[47] Cf. Wieler, Petra: Reading aloud in the family, p.14.

[48] See Belgrad, Jürgen: Learning room reading aloud, S21.

[49] See Belgrad, Jürgen: Learning room reading aloud, p.21.

[50] See Ibid., Pp. 21-22.

[51] See Belgrad, Jürgen: Learning room reading aloud, p.22.

[52] Trischler, Franziska: Reading room, p.46.

[53] See Trischler, Franziska: Learning room for readers, p.46.

[54] Cf. Trischler, Franziska: Learning room for readers, pp.46-47.

[55] See Ibid., P.46.

[56] Cf. Trischler, Franziska: Lernraum Vorleser / in, pp. 42-62.

[57] See Ibid., P.42.

[58] See Trischler, Franziska: Learning room for readers, pp.49-52.

[59] Koerber, Susanne: Developmental Psychology, p.39.

[60] See Koerber, Susanne: Developmental Psychology, p.39.

[61] Cf. Kraus, Karolina: Dialogical Reading, pp. 109-129

[62] Erikson, E.H. : Identity and Life Cycle, pp 142-143.

[63] Cf. Bruner, Jerome: How the child learns to speak, p.13-15.

[64] Cf. Bruner, Jerome: How the child learns to speak, p.17-24.

[65] See Kolonko, Beate, Spracherwerb, p.45.

[66] Kolonko, Beate: Language acquisition, p.46.

[67] See Ibid., Pp. 46-49.

[68] Kolonko, Beate: Language acquisition, p.51.

[69] See Kolonko, Beate: Spracherwerb, pp.50-52.

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