What are the substitutes for natural diamonds
What is an artificial diamond? Artificial diamonds - a decent substitute for natural ones
Artificial diamonds are an excellent alternative for those who cannot afford natural stones, while at a much lower price you can get a splendid decoration made of environmentally friendly material. So far, two main types of artificial diamonds have been distinguished - synthetic stones and so-called diamond substitutes.
The process of creating a synthetic diamond was developed by the French chemist Henri Moissan in 1892. Tiny particles of a synthetic diamond were formed when coal or carbon material in a cast iron dome was heated to extremely high temperatures (4000¼ c). To date, two basic processes have been used in the manufacture of artificial diamonds: the action on the high pressure material when it is heated to high temperatures (HTHP) and the process of chemical vapor precipitation (CVD).
Temperature plus pressure
This technology is also known as the names of HTHP and "Gepol". In this case, a special installation in the form of a tetrahedral press or a six-turn cubic high-pressure press is used. The diamond "seed" is placed in the working chamber, which is located in the press and is exposed to high temperatures and high pressure, and the conditions as close as possible to the natural properties of the diamond formation process in nature. Unlike natural diamonds, the temperature press method allows an artificial diamond to be produced for seven or ten days. Often, additional treatment of synthetic diamonds by temperature and pressure is used to improve the properties of the stone and achieve the maximum similarity to the natural analogue.
Process for chemical precipitation from the gas phase (CVD)
The method developed in the 1980s includes the conditions for cultivating the crystal under low pressure. A particle of the source material is placed in the working chamber which is then subjected to a combined action of temperature and pressure while the combination of vaporization of carbon plasma and hydrogen is on the substrate. Carbon gases are charged with microwave energy and attracted to the source material. Using a chemical vapor deposition process, a synthetic diamond takes several days to form.
Diamonds grown in laboratory conditions are naturally not inferior in hardness, Clivic (SPHYDOW), refractive index, light dispersion, specific gravity and radiation. In addition to natural diamonds, synthetic options can contain small inclusions.
Color range and optical properties of artificial diamonds
In contrast to natural diamonds, which for the most part have no color, synthetic diamonds have a slightly yellowish tint and a defect due to the inclusion of nitrogen, which is removed in the structure of the crystal lattice during the crystal growth phase. The inclusions of nitrogen absorb the blue spectrum of the light beam, whereby the crystal acquires a yellowish tint.
Diamond substitutes have been widely used in the jewelry industry since the 1970s, with the first diamonds being replaced by a stable cubic zirconium. (Fianit), later there were such substitutes as Moassanite and Nexus. More than a year ago, crystal, zircon and white sapphire were used to imitate diamonds, these stones were especially popular in the manufacture of persot Victorian style.
The Nexus diamond substitute is a carbon monoxide with other substances. Such substitutes are characterized by strength and hardness and are accompanied by a tripled lifelong safety guarantee. The material used to make fianits is zirconium dioxide. Among all diamond replacement parts, the fianite is considered to be the least strong and, accordingly, one of the cheapest.
Moissanite, which is synthesized from silicon carbide, is famous for its luster and radiance. The high strength of this diamond substitute is definitely reflected in its price, of any substitute, moissanite The most expensive, in addition, this crystal has certain external functions that allow you to distinguish it from a natural diamond.
When comparing artificial and natural diamonds, the difference visible to the naked eye is the cost of crystals, however it is worth noting that white (colorless) synthetic diamonds are often not inferior in price to natural colorless diamonds. Another difference: there is inclusion and heterogeneity in natural diamonds, while synthetic options are practically flawless.
If you decide to purchase an ornament with an artificial diamond, you can definitely save an all-round sum, but if you want to reduce the cost as much as possible, pay attention to the product with diamond substitutes, they cost much cheaper than mans with artificial ones Diamonds.
Substitutes are inferior to a natural diamond in strength and hardness, but in terms of radiance and luster, natural crystals can be worthy. In addition, the substitutes are completely clean and stripped of inclusions. Moassanite has the most remarkable brilliance and intensity of the reward, which creates the effect of the "disco ball" in a certain way undesirable for some buyers; the Fianits have no such charisma as diamonds, but reject the glare better.
Decoration with diamonds is of course the dream of every ambitious lady. However, there is no shortage of such jewelry, the reason why many scientists in the world have worked for decades in search of the method how to make an artificial diamond. In many industries (optics. Medicine, microelectronics) and the purpose of the technology produced was that artificial diamonds not only lost the properties of natural gemstones, but also surpassed them to perfect the crystal lattice.
To date, at least four ways are known as artificial diamonds. Which is the most progressive, hard to say because one is too expensive, the other's disadvantage is the dirty color of the crystals, the third has a significant difference from the natural shape of crystals. Therefore, the production technology will depend on what targets the stone will be. The crystal lattice of natural diamond is a tetrahedron, which in terms of strength is not the same, and in the ability to roll up the light, it significantly exceeds the glass: diamond - 2.42, glass - 1.8.
If we have the most reliable way to produce synthetic diamonds, then it is the way that is closest to natural conditions. However, it is the most expensive. The high pressure lies primarily in the installation itself - high pressure press. A cylinder is placed in it, and there is already a special chamber made of tantalum carbide with crystalline carbon (graphite). This is the diamond in the thick of the earth. The cylinder is equipped with special holes through which water under high pressure is supplied and refrigerant penetrates.
In the process of multi-stage technology, graphite is supposed to become a diamond. First, a high pressure is provided with a powerful stream of water pushing graphite. Then it is subjected to freezing down to -12 degrees Celsius. The compression process not only stops during the entire process, but on the contrary, it increases, on the contrary, by freezing from 2-3 thousand atmospheres to the first, up to 20 thousand at the end. Next comes the electric current on the shadow of a second, and finally the ice gate is defined and an artificial diamond appears on the light.
The diamond obtained is exactly replicated by the natural crystal lattice of the tetrahedron, but has a somewhat dirty tint. However, in terms of strength, the analog is, of course, much superior. In this way a stone is obtained for technical purposes. Other technology is also pretty straightforward when diamonds are grown in methane without access to air. Without special equipment, you won't do here. The synthetic diamond ultimately has a cubic shape of crystals, is absolutely identical to the strength, but black.
To obtain it, a natural diamond is immersed in a special capacity of the device in meager quantities, like seeds. It is split up and gradually starts delivering carbon (0.2% every hour). The technology of the explosion gives the purest diamond in color, strength and shape of a crystal lattice. To get them, use all of the graphite that is preheated and turns into a diamond pitcher at the time of the explosion. It's in the crumb, because with such a method the yield of crystals is very large, but they are fine.
The same small artificial diamonds are obtained at low temperatures. This technology uses a special metal catalyst that makes it possible to significantly reduce pressure and temperature. As a rule, graphite, solvents, iron, cobalt, nickel are placed in the chamber. The diamond layer behind the layer "grows" in the layer between the hot graphite and the plate catalyst. So get diamonds for technical purposes. During every single cycle it grows up to 50 grams.
Depending on the use of the catalyst used, diamonds differ in color. So the nickel admixties give a green hue, with the help of beryllium blue diamonds are obtained. You can get other colors: white transparent and matte, yellow. The low temperature process gives synthetic diamonds a square shape. The power is obtained higher than that of the natural diamond. If you put a crumb of corundum in the chamber along with chrome and use a clean corundum as a catalyst, the exit can get the perfect ruby.
If you add iron and titanium to this composition, you can get sapphire. The temperature needs 600 degrees Celsius, and the pressure is only 1.5 thousand atmospheres. Modern technologies make it possible to create valuable stones that, according to external signs, can not distinguish from natural, even a professional jeweler. When you pick up high-precision devices, contamination is detected. However, it is not possible to do this with the naked eye.
All of the above technologies create allowed knowledge that essentially natural diamond is just carbon. In the same pure carbon are charcoal of wood species and graphite. Hence, the latter is mostly turned into valuable diamond crystals by applying one of the species. It is known that carbon can be in a solid, gaseous, and liquid state. After studying the temporal characteristics of these states and changes in pressure and temperature using changes in pressure and temperature, it was now possible to obtain artificial diamonds.
From the same time when a person appreciated the amazing properties of natural minerals, one of them became luxury objects, others took a place in everyday life and rituals. The demand for valuable natural stones with low mining strains from the state of the earth ran them dearly. Therefore, the problem of creating artificial substitutes that could meet the demand was actively developed in earlier centuries. The powerful engine of development in this direction was the desire of fraudsters to sell under the guise of more expensive bricks, cheaper fakes.
In alchemy, the origins of a person's desire that correspond to the created natural forces, which correspond to the created natural forces. In the 4th century BC Chr. E. Alchemists were looking for magical formulas for making man-made gemstones. For example, an artificial pearl was found among the long-standing archaeological finds of Chinese civilization. Real scientific results were being achieved in the middle of the 19th century. Mark Godan, a chemist from France, in 1857 revealed to the world the first man of the created stone - ruby. The next appeared artificial emerald. Then the manufacture of stones for jewelry matters began to develop more successfully, and as early as the 20th century it was established on a full-fledged production scale.
So, one person opened another mystery of nature - he managed to create artificial minerals with their means. In terms of its composition, artificial substitutes of natural stones approached 100%. It is almost impossible to distinguish natural from an artificial non-specialist. Yes, and a professional look in some cases may be little without laboratory spectral analysis.
Wrinky is a matter of the differences between natural and man-made stones, we find that the latter structure is closer to ideal. In the course there are often different inclusions, large or small cracks on the surface. This is normal property, but can only serve as a relative sign of natural origin. Such defects can be present in man-made gemstones. In addition, the magnificent locations and round air bubbles are only inherent in man-made stones.
The emergence of a large number of man-made stones in the jewelry market shook established prices. For a while it became much easier to get real rubies yourself, the cost of natural sapphires and disgusts went down. However, very shortly afterwards, with the help of optical devices, the jewelers learned to identify artificial stones. So the situation was resettled.
So far, almost all valuable stones are created in the laboratories. Artificial mineral crystals are widely used in electronics and other industries. The manufacture of artificial stones can now be carried out by tons. However, it cannot be with all minerals yet. Science had to work most of all with diamonds.
History of the artificial diamond
Isaac Newton suggested that while diamond was the most massive mineral on the planet, it was prone to burning. Since it was known that the diamond was created for us after complex transformations from the usual graphite, the hypothesis was put forward about the possibility of the reverse process. The Florentine Academy of Sciences was experimental research on this hypothesis. It was found that at 1100 degrees Celsius diamond first turns into graphite and then burns.
In the 30s of the 20th century, AVS Leipunsky found the conditions under which an artificial diamond can be raised as a result of their own studies and complex calculations. So the pressure should be more than 4.5 GPa and the temperature is 1227 degrees Celsius. In this case, the process should occur in a complex medium-melting metal. It wasn't until two decades ago that an attempt to create an artificial diamond was crowned with success. However, the first diamonds were only suitable for technical purposes. Creating artificial diamonds requires serious technical means, which makes the process costly. It is found that artificial and natural diamonds have differences in the magical properties allowed.
Artificial diamonds closer to the group of quartz minerals, if there is a natural and artificial diamond nearby then the latter suffers. The magical properties of artificial minerals are much weaker, so the natural stone "acquaintance" with artificial way should be carefully. Just in a few days, the information exchange at a distance through the partition (made of paper, for example), the stones together will be able to "come along" with each other.
Another cheap treat is artificial emeralds. Today an expensive hydrothermal method is used to create them. For quite a long time the emeralds were only made in Kerol Cherleman's laboratory in San Francisco. Today, several companies in the world are using such a method and creating artificial emeralds.
The fragility of artificial stones is the same as that of natural ones. However, in their structure there are no (or practically no) cracks and other defects inherent in natural stones, therefore the emeralds created by the laboratory are more durable.
The technology for creating an artificial emerald has improved but remains very expensive. Therefore, hydrothermal stones are just slightly cheaper than natural. They are also resistant to the effects of acids, heating, ultraviolet exposure. The color of the artificial emeralds is identical to the natural one.
Cultured pearls - old technology
The Chinese kept the secret of artificial pearls for a very long time. In 1890, the ancient technology was known to the Japanese, who continued the manufacture of pearls for industrial production.
The ancient technology of growing pearls involves a long process of the beautiful pearl around a small bead of pearl that is manually placed into a piece of fatty tissue from one mollusk and then into the robe of the other. The process of growing pearls in this way of the knife so that technologies have been improved and processes have been simplified. This is how the concept of cultivating pearls appeared.
The smallest size of the cultured pearl is like a pen head, and the largest - with a pigeon egg. The form is of particular importance: the round is very much appreciated, as close as possible to the ideal. Pearls can also have teardrop-shaped and memoryless buttons. The cost of cultured pearls, and consequently products of it, is less than natural, which makes it more affordable in the pricing plan.
As for all artificial gemstones, it is necessary to remember: this is not a fake, but a person's attempt to replace limited hard-to-natural resources with scientific creations. That is why artificial stones occupy a separate and undoubtedly a worthy place in the jewelry world.
Diamonds have long been used as the most sophisticated jewelry. Jewelers share diamonds of almost thousands of varieties depending on their transparency, tone, density and uniformity of color, the presence of cracks, mineral inclusions and other functions. At the end of the twentieth century, diamonds began to be used in production. Currently, the economic potential of the most developed countries is largely linked to the use of diamonds.
What properties of diamonds determine their widespread use in a variety of areas of the economy? Of course, there is an exceptional hardness, of course, which, when judged by the speed of quenching, is 150 times that of Corunda, and dozens of times better than the best alloys used for grinding the incisors. Because of this property, diamond is used when drilling rocks.
For the first time, geologists began to use natural diamonds when drilling column cabins in about 1910, with the help of such cabins, ring holes were made in the breed, through which core was removed - samples of rocks for analysis. Diamond first introduced bits for drilling oil wells in the early 1920's when they became widespread. Natural diamonds are used for chisels, not technical, but jewelry, which is pulled out to a special size and indicates the correct, rounded shape.
The exceptional solidity of diamonds enables them to be used in the mechanical processing of a wide variety of materials, to stretch thin wire, thin wire, as an abrasive, etc., etc.
More than half of the production of technical diamonds goes to the production of a special tool for the manufacturing industry. The use of diamond cutters and dried on the processing of non-ferrous and ferrous metals, solid and superhard alloys, glass, rubber, plastics and other synthetic substances gives an enormous economic effect compared to the use of a hard metal tool. It is extremely important that at the same time not only increases the productivity of the labor increase dozens of times (with reversing processing of plastics, even hundreds of times!), But at the same time the quality of the products is significantly improved. The surface treated with a diamond cutter does not require grinding, they are practically not microcracks, as a result of which the life of the parts obtained increases many times.
Almost all modern industries, primarily electrotechnical, radio-electronic, and instruments, in large quantities, use a thin wire made of various materials in large quantities. At the same time, strict requirements for circular shape and the invariance of the diameter of the cross section of the wire with high surface purity are presented. Such a wire of solid metals and alloys (tungsten, chromium steel, etc.) can only be made with a diamond filler. Filters are lamellar diamonds with thin holes drilled in them.
Diamond powders are also widely used in industry. They are made by crushing low diamonds, as well as in special companies for the production of synthetic diamonds.
Diamond powders are used in granular factories where all jewels, including diamonds, are subjected to cutting and grinding, thanks to the fact that the immovable stones, mysteriously brightening or glistening with glittering jewels, glare to the unique beauty of which no one else is indifferent.
Diamond powders are used in disc diamond saws, Feinamaz drill bits, special files and as an abrasive. Only with the use of diamond powders was it possible to create unique swellings that provide deep thin holes in solid and fragile materials.
In diamond, under the action of a charged particle, a flash of light appears and the current pulse occurs. These properties enable diamonds to be used as nuclear radiation detectors. The luminescence of diamonds and the appearance of electrical current pulses during irradiation enable them to be used in high-speed particle counters. Almaz as such a meter has undeniable advantages over gas and other crystalline devices.
In Russia, after the discovery of Yakut insoles, a diamond manufacturing industry was created. First and foremost, we also produce synthetic diamonds. Currently, they are increasingly used in various branches of the economy.
Synthesized diamonds are not natural analogues. This means that under laboratory conditions, a method for synthesizing diamonds that is implemented in nature has not yet been developed.
Synthetic diamond synthesis was first implemented in Sweden and the United States in 1953, and in the USSR in 1959. However, the diamond crystals obtained at that time could only be used as an abrasive material, since the dimensions of individual crystals were not 0.8 mm and had poor mechanical strength. The synthesis of large diamond single crystals, which was implemented many later, is associated with great technical and economic difficulties. In this regard, the most promising for technical use is a spherical (diameter of 6-7 mm) radially radial radial shape of diamonds or ballas, which has strength even higher than diamond single crystals and is easiest to obtain. As a result, the main effort of the scientific team was aimed at the synthesis of this modification, which was 1963 years old. For the first time in the world that received at the Department of Physics and High Pressure Chemistry.
The testing of synthetic ballas in the drilling technique showed their high efficiency on wells in a variety of soils, but synthetic indentation is particularly widely used for making wolves in the making of wire.
In addition to the development of diamond synthesis processes, studies are carried out on the physicochemical properties of obtained substances and the study of the mechanism of their synthesis. The last problem is of the greatest scientific interest.
Currently, there are three main options for considering the mechanism of diamond formation - the simplest description of diamond crystallization from the melt of graphite in the Republic of Tajikistan region of diamond stability (\ u003e 100 kbar ~ 2000 ° C) and two options for discussion - crystallization of diamond from a decrease in graphite in metal - "catalyst" and phase transition of graphite in a diamond in the solid phase in the presence of metals - "catalysts". The last processes flow under sludge (40-60 kbar, 1400-1600 ° C) compared to the "direct" phase transition. Studies of the diamond mechanism on the discussion options conducted in the department showed their equivalencies. The implementation in practice of a mechanism is determined by the type of carbonaceous raw materials (e.g. its tendency to graphitization) or the type of metal catalyst metal, for example the ability to form cemented carbide and the stability of cemented carbide shapes in the RT of the diamond synthesis area or other causes.
The first estimates of the conversion of graphite to diamond by O.I. Leipunk (1948) showed that such a transition is possible at a pressure of p \ u003d 6 gpa and temperature t \ u003d 2300є. Currently, diamonds are synthesized using various technologies, which are determined by the phase carbon diagram in the coordinates of pressure - the temperature (p-T) in the area of thermodynamic stability of the diamond at p \ u003e 4GPA, t \ u003e 1270є. In the metastable diamond conditions, R from 1 to 100 GPA and T from 870 to 1070 ° C. In the first case, the synthesis occurs in the condensed phase (pressure or static or dynamic). In the second case, the formation of diamonds occurs as a result of carbon condensation from the gas phase.
Due to the unique properties and above all the extraordinary hardness and resistance to wear and tear, natural and artificial diamonds are widely used in modern technologies and mechanisms. The most famous and popular is the use of natural diamonds for making diamonds and jewelry. Diamonds are still the most popular gemstones. Russia has maintained diamond extraction records (Appendix 5) for the past few years. Only in 2006. Russia exported diamonds worth $ 1.7 billion, of which 78% - the countries of the European Union.
It is already known that diamond is a modification of high pressure carbon. Technical diamonds are now obtained at huge pressures (40-60 thousand atmospheres) and temperatures, i.e. H. Under conditions close to the natural process of formation of diamonds from the point of view of the mantle theory of the place of origin of diamonds.
However, during the study we managed to find out that the sheath theory is not the basis of scientific beliefs about the problem of the origin of diamonds. In addition, the facts and processes that contradict the basic provisions of this theory are described. So far there is no hypothesis that fully and scientifically reliable describes the process of natural diamond formation.
At the same time, all physicochemical properties of diamonds are examined in detail and described in scientific literature. The unique properties of diamonds allow these minerals to be used in various areas of the economy. The cleanest and large diamonds have greater jewelry value.
Wrote January 30, 2018
The phrase "Belarussian Diamonds" to our ears sounds the same as "Belarusian Shrimp". But do not rush with jokes. Few people know that the nineties in Belarus in Belarus built one of the worlds in the world in the world of diamond synthesis, in which the industrial assets of this area are ready to be provided from this sphere, and the quality of the crystals was international rated.
The world's first synthesized diamond was received in the 1950s with the help of a special press from General Electric in the 1950s. Small dirty pebbles by properties did not differ from natural diamonds. There was only one catch: money on its synthesis was required much more than mining in nature. It was waiting for this business and until the 1980s about growing diamonds was sure to be forgotten.
One of the first attempts to obtain diamonds using an electric arc furnace.
In the late 1980s, scientists from the Novosibirsk branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences created the contrast device "The Split Ball" (Bars), which was the first to obtain the synthesized diamond in order to compete with natural competition not only in quality , but also to taste. In the first synthesized Novosibirsk diamonds it was significantly lower.
General, seven scientists, and $ 5 million
After a successful test in the 1990s, seven-known Soviet scientists (two of them - Belarus) came up with the idea of creating the world's first diamond synthesis plant. Belarus chose the platform thanks to a good geographical location.
Scientists became the founders of Adamas. They took out the USSR Promstroibank loan for 51 million Soviet rubles and started construction in the village of Atolino, which is under Minsk.
The facility should be quite large: three-story building, 220 employees. As a result, however, there was not enough money, which then "BELPROMSTROYBANK" then entered the founders, who allocated a credit line of 5 million US dollars and two more in the Soviet times of businessmen, which raised another 2.5 million US dollars to have.
Investors only managed to fill in the building, put 120 apparatuses from Barça and work out a bit of technology, as the founder businessmen started having problems - they left the plant with no money.
Suddenly, four scientists lure a retired Carter Clark into the United States. It turns out that in 1995 he bought the production technology of synthesized diamonds for 60 thousand and founded the GEMEISE diamond. By the way, everything was carried out officially, since Russia was in need of sharp money at the time, and they sold their scientific developments. Scientists left "Adamas" and went to Clark.
One of the largest manufacturers of synthesized diamonds in the world.
In a difficult situation, the founders tried to return loan money to the bank, but in vain. In 1999 the Adamas leadership opened a criminal case. The process lasted five years and the amount of damage was estimated at $ 7 million. Businessmen and lawyer abroad. However, four were still planted.
After leaving freedom, none of the former leaders of Adamas in Atolino did not return. We went to St. Petersburg and Moscow and the remaining three scientists, and with them - and the technology of diamond synthesis.
The first synthetic diamonds.
So the world has emerged in the world three largest synthesized diamonds: Moscow, Peter and American Florida. There are still a few small companies out there, but they say the whole string all leads to the same seven.
What happened to the factory all along? It was transferred to the balance of the Belgos University. In one of the parts of the building the enterprise rue "Adamas Bsu" functioned: Scientists conducted research, examined the production of technical diamonds, improved it. The facilities were very expensive to operate and the financial issue became more acute.
"When the Chinese, Arabs and Israelis were persuaded to sell the production, it became clear: the demand is up"
On the edge of the Atolino is the three-story building of the plant, which Soviet scientists dream about - ordinary production with painted walls and fresh repairs inside. In the passage here - a cop and a strict range.
A few years ago Adamas Bsu passed the company to the structure of the President's Office. A little over a year ago, the Vice Rector of the Academy of Management under the President of Maxim Board was asked to estimate the situation in Atolino: does it make sense to go into production there, or is it easier to scrap the equipment?
"I admit to myself right away: from my training I am a lawyer and the subject of diamond production for me was Nova," Maxim Naumovich leads us to the workshop. - I started sewing the literature, looking at foreign experiences. In all honesty, he didn't think our crystals were actually good and could be sold. But traveled on the exhibitions, showed diamonds, felling diamonds that were raised in our workshop, - experts were admired. And when they started calling the Armenians, the Chinese, the Israelis with conviction who sell the devices, finally understood: there are prospects.
So in November 2016 ADAMASINVEST LLC appeared (the previous company is now on the stage of liquidation). It is also subject to the Office of Presidential Affairs and is working on a special project "Restoring the Manufacture of Synthesized Diamonds and the Development of Jewelry from Products with Inserts from the Received Diamonds". It works here for 45 people.
- We received a loan for this project. Return of money, there are clear conditions, emphasizes Maxim Naumovich. - We developed a detailed business plan, in six months they got the building in order, restored the shop and started producing jewelry. In fact, that's what we're focusing on now.
In the technical diamond market, according to Maxim Naumovich, no point in going: all the players put on the shovels of China. Nine years ago, the Kiev instrumental system sold the PRC sample of a special press.China found them with 40 thousand pieces, in 2014 he entered the technical diamond market and accepted it 20 times. Despite the fact that Belarusian technical diamonds are superior to Chinese in quality, they stand in a more expensive one.
- China is not going to the jewelry market. I think it's not allowed by the two biggest players: the US De-beers and the Russian "Alaross". We therefore have a good chance of synthesizing jewelery diamonds, "concludes Maxim Bord.
The temperature can increase to 2 thousand degrees, pressure up to 20 thousand atmospheres
A huge hall with dozens of cylinders and a minimum of workers - it looks like a workshop with most of the leopards, which are 120 pieces here. To serve all devices per switchover, Locksmith and Engineer can lock. A total of 10 people work in the workshop.
- They were designed in the 1970s, but not yet found in the production of diamonds for jewelry purposes and better than bars, "Maxim Naumovich showed the hemisphere. - In general, there are currently two diamond production technologies in the world: HighP (high temperature, high pressure - high temperature, high pressure) and CVD (chemical vapor deposition - chemical vapor deposition). The latter is good for making technical diamonds, but not very suitable for jewelry. The fact is that the stone in the gas environment with smooth layers and in nature - grows unevenly, like the HHP technology we use.
Maxim Naumovich shows the cylinder control panel. This is a special instrument that is controlled manually. With the slightest deviations from the specified values, employees regulate indicators.
- It seems, let the computer grow the diamonds. And I was honestly thinking about automating this process, "argues the director." But when I saw our technology, I understood: it doesn't matter. "First, expensive investments won't pay off. Second, the growth of diamonds depends on the tent of nuances ab: For example, temperatures in the external environment at different levels. Can the computer take all these nuances into account and react as a person? We think that there are no.
Barns themselves are pretty simple: 3.5 tons of metal, the hose to feed an oil that creates pressure, and contacts that give the power and temperature. Inside the device - two balls: large and small. Each ball consists of six parts - punches, which are made from a special alloy alloy. Large cradle 16 kilograms, small - a little less than a kilogram. Small strokes are actually consumable. They cost $ 200 and fail on average after five syntheses.
- The temperature at the entrance of the device is 1500 degrees, the pressure is 1800 atmospheres, the director explains. - Inside the temperature can grow up to two thousand degrees, and the pressure is up to 10-20 thousand. The temperature and pressure change throughout the diamond's growth. This is three days, not a century, like in nature.
There is a special porcelain cube in the middle of the ball. In it, as Maxim Naumovich says, and there is "All Science". Before the cube is sent to the bar, it's "filling": place a special compressed tablet on top that consists of individual components, usually metals, here and a small piece of diamond that is in a large stone and graphite rod (graphite is a Medium, what gives diamond the opportunity to grow). Then the cube is dried in the oven, soaked in certain materials, and only after all these procedures can be placed.
A diamond will grow or not, even depends on the warmth of employees' hands
- The production technology is very "capricious", adds Maxim Naumovich. - Diamond can get big, maybe small, good or bad, and it doesn't grow at all. It all depends on a dozen factors: from the hands of an engineer collecting a cube, how he dries it, whether he impresses it correctly, to the temperature in the workshop and graphite quality. Somehow the Baltic countries also tried to establish production. Purchased equipment and diamonds do not grow. It turned out to be growing a diamond - it is not easy to turn on the chopper.
Three days later, the cube is taken from the leopard, breaking and a little riddle where the edge of the crystal can be seen. The blank is thrown into the flask and "Royal Vodka" (three parts hydrochloric acid and one nitrogen) poured into it. The flasks that are placed in a special cabinet and heated so that the reaction is faster.
- Under normal conditions, after two hours, the metals dissolve and only diamond, they say in the laboratory. - Then we remove the diamond, we rinse it off and leave it out in the chrome mixture.
So the graphite is cleaned and the pure diamond is already preserved. It is weighed, packed and transferred to outsourcing - for cutting to the Russian company (in Belarus there are no free specialists in Belarus in Belarus, but teaching new things is expensive).
- From the initial weight of the diamond can lose 30-60%. It all depends on the presence of the inclusions and the purity of the stone that is added to the production. - In addition, high-quality stones for cutting and installing in the product are guaranteed in half of all synthesis, it is 220 stones per month. In 20% more cases, stones are of slightly lower quality.
- It is enough for work, but it is not enough for developing it. We fight over this task, - Maxim Naumovich shows diamond samples. - We certified our stones at the International Hemological Institute in Antwerp. The expert opinion is like this: our stones are no different from natural in all their chemical and physical properties. Here are the same such indicators of strength, the absence of a reaction to radiation, etc.
Basically, the company grows colorless diamonds weighing up to 1 carat and receives diamonds at 0.2-0.3 carats. Such stones mainly go on earrings and rings. Crystals can be enjoyed: give lemon, black, red and other colors. But the company says that Belarusians prefer classics.
"The Hindus began making ritual diamonds from starden."
The company called Hindus with an unusual request, called the company with an unusual request: ritual stones called Hindus.
- They want to keep the memory of their limited relatives in this form. Compared to the British company, which is closely involved in the same production, our diamonds went five times cheaper, - explains the director.
- We do not dare to work with the matrices of the dead, but the technology of getting a diamond out of the hair has been worked out. Yes, diamonds can be obtained from the hair. We get carbon from them and then we work on the same scheme. We tested technology, we have already released 12 such stones. TRUE while mass rolling this topic is the next stage of work for us. And there is great scientific potential in this subject.
Even so, the main focus makes the main focus on your own jewelry. Jewelry shop, although small (9 people), but possibly it can produce up to 5 thousand units per month. Last week a large party of Belarusian diamonds entered the shops.
- Our products cost 20-30% of the cheaper products with natural stones, and the synthesized diamonds themselves are twice as cheap overall. For example, the selling price of the finished product with a diamond of 0.15 carats is 300 rubles, with a stone of 0.25 carats costs 600 rubles, the director shows products of products.
Basically this is the engagement rings. Maxim Naumovich says there are earrings, as well as cufflinks, and silver with diamonds, and even an art series in Ecostel.
- Synthesized diamonds are gaining popularity in Europe. It is believed that they are more environmentally friendly than the land being mined. And this is the truth. In addition, according to the properties, of course, they are not inferior, - he argues and shares plans: To strengthen in the jewelry market, open a corporate store with prices at a lower price of 40% than the market and much more.
- There is a goal to meet our affordable Belarusian brand diamond. And the global task - due to the profit gained to further develop scientific technologies in this area, adds Maxim Bord.
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