What is 5g spectrum
5G frequenciesIn these areas radio is used
The new 5G generation of mobile communications could begin regular operation this year. Whereby 5G is not the same as 5G. Because 5G can be divided into three areas in which radio will be broadcast.
Area 1, the so-called "Sub-3-Ghz" area
Like its predecessors, 5G will also use frequencies between 700 megahertz and 2.6 gigahertz. Technically, 5G is similar to its older LTE standard.
Area 2, the C-band
The so-called C-band is used for the first time for mobile communications. The communication between the base station and the end device takes place in Germany on frequencies between 3.4 and 3.7 gigahertz. New processes are used, such as so-called "beam forming", in which the radio waves are quasi bundled and then sent to the receiving device in a targeted manner.
Area 3, the millimeter waves
The range that - at least in Germany - is between 26 and 28 gigahertz in the high-frequency spectrum is referred to as millimeter waves. There are also attempts to transmit in even higher ranges between 60 and 100 gigahertz, which is physically extremely challenging.
High frequencies are more powerful
Basically, the lower the radio frequency, the better the radio waves propagate and penetrate walls, for example. The disadvantage, however, is that less data can be transmitted with less bandwidth. Networks with a high frequency are more efficient, but they cover less area and barely penetrate obstacles.
5G on low frequencies such as the 700 megahertz band will never reach gigabit speeds, but will be able to cover a lot of space. According to the physical principles, the sub-3 GHz range and the C-band should actually differ significantly in their range. Thanks to technical processes such as beam forming, the physical disadvantage can be partially offset and fast networks with a greater range can be implemented.
The following applies to Sub-3-Ghz and C-Band: The number of base stations and the distances between them remain at a similar level to today thanks to the technical processes. Only if the efficiency and capacity of the network are to be increased does the number of base stations have to rise sharply. Radiation exposure, which is already well below the limit values today, will not increase significantly in the future, according to industry circles.
The 5G networks are set up in parallel with the current LTE technology. In some cases, antennas and base stations can still be used after just one software update, the so-called "retrofit". This is why the industry speaks of a smooth transition from 4G to 4.5G to 5G. The first regular 5G networks will probably go into operation in Germany between mid-2019 and 2020. The entry into mobile communications in the millimeter wave range is expected years later in Germany.
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