What is the relationship between phonology and morphology

The abstract system of signs and rules

Parole = "speaking":

The concrete realization of Langue

Aim:

Statements about the langue are obtained by examining the slogan, i.e. a corpus

Statements can only be made on the basis of directly observable data.

For linguistics this means:

=> Introspection is not allowed

=> The subjects of investigation for linguistics are extensive, "representative" corpora of actual utterances.

 

Such statements can only be obtained through operational procedures.

=> Statements can only be made about the structure, not the meaning.

  • knowledge of the mother tongue acquired in language acquisition
  • finite inventory of elements (sounds and words)
  • Linkage Rules
    • right wrong
    • Ambiguity and Praphrase Relationships

    Requirements for a language description: adequacy

    A language description that is observationally adequate must cover all observable phenomena, i.e. all linguistic data must be correctly recorded.

     

    Descriptive adequacy (= descriptive adequacy):

    A language description that is adequate to the description must not only cover all observable phenomena, the analysis must also match the intuition of the "ideal speaker / listener".

     

    Explanatory adequacy (= explanatory adequacy):

    Beyond the adequacy of observation and description, an adequately explanatory language description must be able to correctly explain data of language acquisition and commonalities between languages ​​(universals).

  • articulatory phonetics deals with the formation of sounds and the tools of speech
  • acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of the sound event
  • auditory / perceptual phonetics deals with reception, i.e. with the auditory impression.
  • e.g. Nous y allons.

    not so important in German!

    • Realization phonology: Which systematic phonetic modifications are pragmatic, e.g. caused by speaking style or speaking speed?
  • falling: statement
  • increasing: question
  • progressive: Part of the sentence that needs to be continued
  • Accent: emphasis
  • Peter
  • comes.
  • Peter comes.
  • special: contrast accent: not Peter rather Karl comes.
  • romp: [to: bn] -> [to: bm] -> [to: m]
    talking: [re: dn] -> [re: dn] -> [re: n]
    lay: [le: gn] -> [leg
  • In German, the glottal pop is articulated in front of vowels at the initial syllable sound ([])
  • compare "on", "out" opposite "up", "out"
  • unvoiced plosives in the immediate use of syllables are aspirated in German (e.g. ([kH])
  • compare "sick" - "smooth", "flat" - "leaf", etc.
  • n is velarized before [g] and [k]
  • compare "sing" or "sink" opposite "separate"
  • : Minimum phonetic unit that a speaker can determine by breaking down (= segmenting) the sound current continuum based on the smallest perceptible differences.
    Notation: [fo: n]
    Phones are represented by IPA, the international phonetic alphabet
  • not all possible phones appear in a single language, e.g. German as a word component
  • For example, there are certain phones in German (e.g. the apical and the uvular r) that do not lead to a differentiation in meaning
  • For phonology, however, those minimal phonetic units with a potentially meaning-differentiating function are of interest. This is called Phonemes.
    Notation: / fo: ne: me /
  • Consider pairs of phones.
  • For each pair of phones, look for 2 words with different meanings that differ in their phonetic form only in that they each contain one of the phones.
  • If such a pair of words (= a minimal pair, since it only differs with regard to a single property) can be found, then we are dealing with different phonemes.
  • Allophones

  • Position of the accent:
    úmfahren - encircle, put in - under, Ténor - Tenór, Vóllzug - Vollzúg, ...
    => German is a language with (largely) free word accents
  • Syllable structure:
    Solln - shall (number of syllables)
    nitrate - night rate (position of the syllable boundary)
  • Tone structure:
    e.g. in Mandarin Chinese:
    high tone: [ma] = mother
    high rising tone: [ma] = hemp
    falling-rising tone: [ma] = horse
    falling tone: [mà] = to scold
  • open syllable: syllable ends in vowel
  • closed syllable: ends in a consonant
  • Joint: if a sound belongs to two syllables (= ambisyllabic) it is called a joint.
  • [g] - [k]: hunt [..g ..] - hunt [..k ..] - hunt / hunt [..k ..]

    [b] - [p]: praise [..b ..] - praiseworthy [..p ..] - praises [..p ..]

    [d] - [t]: avoid [..d ..] - avoidable [..t ..] - avoid [..t ..]

    [z] - [s]: read [..z ..] - readable [..s ..] - reads [..s ..]

    [v] - [f]: active [..v ..] - active [..f ..] - curves [..f ..]

     

    Rule: Obstruents are always voiceless in the coda!

    This rule applies regardless of whether the coda is followed by a word boundary or a syllable boundary, and for all obstacles in the coda.

    A word is what stands between spaces or separators.

    What are the separators?

    • many separators are ambiguous, e.g. point:
      et al., F.D.P.
    • how are hyphens treated?
      Garmisch-Partenkirchen, blood and liver sausage
    • how are apostrophes treated?
      Got it, Wies’n
    • Words that can be written both together and apart:
      at home - at home, we arrive - that we arrive

    So-called limit signals indicate the word boundaries:

    • Accent in languages ​​with a fixed accent (but requires knowledge of syllable boundaries)
    • phonotactic rules:
      Example / mpfl / must contain a word boundary, but not clearly where:
      (that he lied after the) fight
      (as it flew over) the fight
      (because she plowed the) comb
    • Junction (= loose connection):
      Tree branch = / tree + branch / or / construction + mast /
      but also: headless = / head + loose /
      => supplies word components, not necessary. just words
    • Vowel harmony:
      E.g. Hungarian: all vowels of a word must be either leading or trailing vowels. That means there must be word boundaries between different vowel types.
      But: Budapest

    Typical properties of words are:

    • Can be moved relatively freely within the set:
      "The house is slowly burning down" what can be moved freely?
    • Nothing can be inserted within a word:
      go back - go back - go back
    • Words can be exchanged within a sentence:
      that he calls me

    A word is a smallest relatively independent carrier of meaning.

    • what does relatively independent mean?
      syntactically: interchangeable and replaceable?
      is in in teacher, player, ... self-employed?
    • what does carrier of importance mean?
      Child + he: child = young person, he = more than 1.

    There is no single definition for word. However, there is a basic intuitive understanding of what a word is, and this is at least tended to be supported by the attempts at definition.

     

     

  • the lexeme is a Element of the lexicon
  • the word form is a Element of the watchword
  • the grammatical word is a Element of grammar, especially the syntax
  • If two different lexemes are realized with the same word form, one speaks of homonymy (with the same pronunciation) or Homography (with the same spelling).

    • BANK1 = financial institution
    • BANK2 = seating
    • Polysemy

    However, if it is not a matter of fundamentally different lexemes, but rather there is a uniform basic meaning, one speaks of Polysemy.

    • Pear: fruit or light bulb
    • Point: needle / spear point or point group

    he

    in children, s in cars, en in Women are morphs and especially allomorphs to the plural morpheme.
  • Morphs (morphemes) that can form a word independently, i.e. can occur freely, are called free morph (morphemes).
  • Morphs, which, on the other hand, cannot form a word on their own, but always occur in combination with other morphs (morphemes), are called bound morph (morphemes).
  • Example: child + he. child is a free morph during he is a bound morph.
  • Lexical - grammatical morphs / morphemes:
  • Morphs (morphemes) that correspond to a lexeme, i.e. an element of the lexicon, are called lexical morph (morphemes).
  • Morphs (morphemes) that do not correspond to a lexeme but only have a grammatical function are called grammatical morph (morphemes) or Flexion morphemes.
  • Example: Has in 'has read’Is free but grammatical, les is bound but lexical.
  • In addition to the lexical and grammatical morphs, there is a third group, the Derivative morphemes. In contrast to the lexical morphs (me) n, they do not correspond to a lexeme, but rather they modify lexemes. So you have more than just a grammatical function.
  • Example: job + he. he is a derivative morph (em) that turns the lexeme WORK into a new lexeme WORKER.
  • free lexical morph (me) is called root
  • Morph (em) combinations that correspond to a lexeme but do not contain inflectional morphs (me) are called tribe or Base.
  • Example: child is the root of children. job is the root and workers the trunk of Workers.
  • Morphs (me), which only appear in a certain context, which cannot be classified as lexical, grammatical or derivative morphs (me), are called morphs unique morph (me) or bound bases.
  • Example: him in raspberry.
  • Fugenmorph (me):
  • Linked morphs (me), which are inserted when two words are joined together without their own grammatical function, are called Joint morph (em).
  • Example: love + s + letter, beef + he + roast meat, pig + {it} + roast meat, separation + s + pain.
  • Fugues are often flexion morphs of the respective paradigm, but not necessary
  • phonological and semantic explanations do not give a satisfactory result
  • as affix one denotes linguistic units that do not occur freely, that are attached to stems and that can function as inflection or derivative morphemes.
  • Example: In German there are 2 different options for realizing the past tense morpheme:
    1. the affix t with weak verbs: say + t
    2. the ablaut in strong verbs: les - read
  • Affixes are differentiated according to their position in relation to the stem:
  • Prefixes
  • stand in front of the trunk, e.g. U.N: U.N + correct
  • Suffixes
  • stand after the stem, e.g. he: job + he
  • Infixes
  • are inserted, e.g. to: out + to + walk
  • Circumfixes
  • are intermittently joined around the stem, e.g. ge - t : ge + say + t
  • modulatory-additive: additive change of a segment, e.g .: domus (sing) - domus (plu)
  • Reduplication: repetition of a sequence of phonemes from the stem (total or partial). In German only rudimentary in every day or literally.
  • Affixing: in contrast to reduplication, identical language material is always added.
    1. Non-additive morphological processes
    • modulatory processes: non-quantitative changes in a segment, e.g. umlaut tribe - Tribes
    • subtractive processes (= elision): omission of segments. e.g. French Adjectives blanche - blanc
    1. ý
    • Morphological function is not realized through linguistic means, e.g. the case - the cases
    1. Suppletion
    • Complete change of the trunk: Well - better

    Isolating languages ​​show little or no marking of the morphological features. Often the features are coded by syntactic processes (e.g. word order).

    E.g. Vietnamese

    • Agglutinating languages:

    Parts of speech

  • The decisive factor is the combinability with other elements and the syntactic function in the sentence
  • Example: elements that can be connected with the noun or Nouns can form the subject or object of a sentence
  • Typical tests: Distribution framework:
    • Problems: how do you define the framework? Is someone has something ... the same as someone ... something?
  • can possibly be modified by adjectives, determiners, relative clauses and form the subject or object of a sentence
  • Distribution framework: the / who / that ... has / have a certain quality.
  • flexible
  • morphological features:
    • typical realization: number through various affixes
      (-s, -er, - (e) n, -e) or umlaut
  • form the predicate of the sentence
  • Distribution framework: someone / something ... someone / something (someone / something) etc.
  • conjugable
  • morphological features:
    • Typical realization: person / number through various affixes, tense through affixes (weak verbs past tense through -te) or ablaut (strong verbs)
    • different types: full verbs, auxiliary verbs (auxiliaries) and modal verbs.
  • can be used prenominally or predicatively
  • Distribution framework: the / the / the ... X or. X is ....
  • flexible
  • morphological features:
    • typical realization:
      Comparative by -er, superlative by - (e) st
      Congruence features bundled by (-e, -em, -en, -er, -es)
    • Declination type:

    The realization of the congruence features in the
    prenominal adjective is dependent on what
    precedes:

    red wine - the red wine - no red wine
    red wines - the red wines - no red wines

  • can modify verbs or sentences
  • can stand alone in front of the finite verb in verb second clauses: The child plays beautifully.
  • Distribution framework: X sings ... or. someone does ... something.
  • not flexible
  • Subclasses by function:
  • Determiners and pronouns

    • Position before nouns and prenominal adjectives
    • denotes number or definiteness
    • Distribution framework: ... nice big houses
    • flexible
    • morphological features:
    • typical examples: der, ein, kein, possessives, demonstratives
    • Stand in place of noun phrases, can act alone as subject or object
    • Distribution framework: ... do something
    • flexible
    • morphological features:

    other function words

      E.g: go -> go, went, ...

      • Derivation: Process in which a new lexeme is formed from a lexeme.
      • Composition: Two or more lexemes are combined into a new lexeme.

      E.g: Danube steamship company captain

       

      • Some clues for the distinction between derivation and flexion:
      • grammatical features are realized through inflection
      • In principle, inflection preserves the word start
      • Flexion is fully productive, i.e. applicable to any stem of a particular type
      • the outcome of flexion is fully predictable
      easy: the morpheme decomposition gives no more than a lexical morpheme
    • semantically
    • easy: the word cannot be broken down compositionally into its (lexical) components of meaning.

      Simple words are known as Simplizia. (usually interpreted semantically)

    • morphologically simple: Houses, forest, see, yellow, ...
    • morphologically complex but semantically simple: Train station, visible, abandoned, towel, ...
    • semantically complex: Viewer, residence permit, woodshed, etc.
    • un prefixation: un + X stem -> X stem
      effect: Expression of the opposite of X-stem
      (X = noun, adjective (also adverbial))
    • un + noun: Monster, monster, ...

      un + adjective: reluctantly, unequal, ...

       

      • Nomina agentis / instrumentalis: verb stem + er
        Effect: denotes the instrument or agent of the verbal act

      Head, bearer, processor, speaker, ...

       

      Argument inheritance

      : If the base is at least a transitive verb, the derived noun has the corresponding argument positions:

      he runs the company - the head of the company

    • possible back links are the inflected forms of the noun types (noun, adjective, verb), sometimes also adverbs
    • possible antecedents are:
    • Joint forms of nouns (e.g. Performance but
      Not power)

      Verb stems (step, sing, ...), e-forms (read, carry,
      ...), partly also infinitives (help in wanting to help)

      uninflected adjectives (beautiful, blue, ...), uninflected
      Comparatives and superlatives (higher, greatest, ...)

      Proper names: Bayernliga, Munich picture, ...

      Special cases: I feel, let yourself go, at the age of three,
      numbers

      • the hind limb is also known as the head
      • the compound word inherits the morphological features of the head
    • If the anterior segment occupies an argument of the posterior segment, one speaks of a rection compound
    • E.g: Head of department = Head of department, but not: Wooden ladder
    • Determinative compounds:
    • here the rear link is specified in more detail by the front link
    • Example: wooden ladder = ladder made of wood
    • Copulative compounds:
    • The fore and hind limb are interpreted as an and link
    • E.g: Red Blue, Poet friend, ...
    • Part of speech change without affixing
    • E.g: read - The reading
    • Transfer from other languages
    • E.g: boot, log in, terminus, liaison, ...
    • Acronyms (= initial word)
    • are composed of the first letters of the words involved.
    • Example: VHF, laser, radar, ...
    • Short words
    • shortened forms of existing words
    • E.g: University, car (mobile), ...
    • "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously." (Chomsky)

       

      => "Well-formedness" only refers to the structure, not to the content (-> semantics)

      object:

      (1) She reads the novel.

      (2) She reads all day.

      (3) She reads it.

       

      (4) He gives the book to the child.

      (5) He gives the book.

      (6) He opens the door for the man.

       

      (7) She is waiting for the neighbor.

      (8) She's waiting on the bench.

      (7) She lives in Munich.

      (9) * She is waiting.

       

      (10) She hopes he'll come back.

      (11) She hears the car coming.

       

      (12) The case weighs over 20 kg.

       

      (13) The child is washing.

      (14) The child is ashamed.

      predicate:

       

      (1) The car is driving.

      (2) The car will go.

      (3) The car will be able to drive.

       

      (4) The car starts up.

       

      (5) The car drives faster.

      (6) A fast car drives past.

       

      (7) The secretary is typing on a typewriter.

      (8) The secretary writes on the new machine.

       

      (9) He wont come later.

       

      (10) The child is ashamed.

      (11) The child is washing.

      Adverbial definition:

      (1) He likes to work.

      (2) He works in construction.

      (3) He works better than his colleagues.

      (4) He works to make more money.

      (5) He works when he doesn't have to.

      (6) He works back there.

      (7) He works there.

       

      (8) The lecture lasts 2 hours.

       

       

      Conclusion: There is no clear assignment between grammatical function, form and position

      Words that can be substituted for one another without losing grammaticality are possibly constituents

      Replacement sample

      and the old shed will be demolished.

      This is a very interesting and by no means obvious Observation.

       

      The interesting ones

      and the exciting Books sell quickly.

      The interesting and books sell quickly.

      blood

      - and liverSausages belong to the slaughterhouse.
    • NP: the first Day after the Christmas holidays
    • VP: catches Well at
    • AP: especially fast
    • AdvP: very often
    • PP: at a large German university
    • Slopes (are well groomed everywhere)

      the slopes (are well groomed everywhere)

      Garmisch's slopes (are often overcrowded)

      the steep slopes (marked in black)

      steep slopes (should be avoided when icing)

      the steep slopes of Garmisch (are particularly dangerous)

      the slopes most frequently used by guests ...

      the slopes that are most frequently used by guests ...

      all slopes with blue markings ...

      all slopes of Garmisch with blue markings ...

      all slopes marked blue in Garmisch ...

       

      * with blue marking slopes ...

      * which are skied, slopes ...

      1 Y2 ... Yn

      where X and Y

      i Names for syntactic constituents are.
      Such a rule says that a constituent X can consist of a sequence Y
      1 Y2 ... Yn.

      NP -> DET N the slopes

      NP -> DET AP N the steep slopes

      NP -> DET AP N PP the steep slopes with blue
      mark

      etc.

      If a Y

      i is a part of speech (this is called a lexical category), this means that a word of the category concerned can be used. Is Yi The name of a phrase means that a phrase of this type can be used for it.

      What can Y

      i still standing?

      NP -> N (slopes)
      NP -> Det N (the slopes)
      NP -> AP N (steep slopes)
      NP -> Det AP N (the steep slopes)
      NP -> N NPgene(Slopes of German ski resorts)
      NP -> Det N NPgene(the ...)
      NP -> AP N NPgene(steep slopes ...)
      NP -> Det AP N NPgene(the steep slopes ...)
      etc.

      NP -> (Det) (AP) N (NPgene) (PP) (prel) ...

      1. the resulting structures contradict the principles of IC analysis:

      E.g:
      the busy slopes of German ski resorts
      with blue marking

      i.e. there are constituents with headed nouns that are neither phrases nor lexical categories!
      Designate these categories with N1, N2, ...

      1 NP

      VP -> V

      1 PP

      VP -> V

      1

      V.

      1 -> V1

      V.

      1 -> V2 NPbattery

      V.

      1 = {come}

      V.

      2 = {avoid}1
      N1 -> N1(sing, fem, nom) -> N (sing, fem, nom)
      N
      1(sing, fem, akk) -> N (sing, fem, akk)
      N
      1(plu, fem, nom) -> N (plu, fem, nom)
      N
      1(plu, fem, akk) -> N (plu, fem, akk)

       

      NP (sing, fem, nom) -> Det (sing, fem, nom)
      N

      1(sing, fem, nom)
      NP (sing, fem, akk) -> Det (sing, fem, akk)
      N
      1(sing, fem, akk)
      NP (plu, fem, nom) -> Det (plu, fem, nom)
      N
      1(plu, fem, nom)
      NP (plu, fem, akk) -> Det (plu, fem, akk)
      N
      1(plu, fem, akk)1(n1_num, n1_gen, n1_kas)

      N

      1(n1_num, n1_gen, n1_kas) ->
      N (n_num, n_gen, n_kas)
    • Questions: Are you already leaving?
    • Imperative sentences (requests): Better go right away!
    • Declarative sentences (statements):
      I've already done it.
      Is it really okay?
    • Second verb clauses:
    • Declarative clauses:
      I go home.
      I went back home.
      Like I left too early.
    • Questions:
      When will you come back home?
      Where did you come from this morning?
      You come from home
    • Imperative clauses:
      The Lord be with you.
    • Subordinate clauses:
      ... who went home
      that you went home so early ...
      without being late, ...
    • Questions:
      Who will come first?
    • Exclamative sentences (exclamations):
      Go home this early!
    • Declarative clauses:
      That you left so early.
    •  

         
       
       
        
       
        
        
       

       

       

       

       

       

       

    • the apron is always occupied for verb second sentences
      it is certain that it will come - that it is certain that it will come
      (thematic "it")
    • it can be busy for blinded sentences
    • There can be a maximum of one constituent in advance
    • Left sentence bracket (LSK):
    • the left bracket contains the finite verb in the second and verb clauses
    • it contains the conjunction / subjunction in blinded sentences
    • Midfield:
    • the middle field contains any number of non-verbal clauses
    • the order of the parts of the sentence in the middle field is variable
    • In the second clauses of the verb, the apron can be swapped with any part of the sentence in the middle field (of course not with thematic "es")
    • the RSK contains all verbal elements in verbal sentences (including the infinitive particles "zu")
    • it contains all verbal elements except the finite verb in verb clauses and second clauses
    • it contains the separable verb particles in second verb clauses with particle verbs
      (he gives up the race)
    • Nachfeld
    • the trailing field contains adverbial clauses
    • it contains subordinate clauses or prepositional phrases that relate to constituents of the middle field (extraponated)
    • and
    • in logic: means: both a and b must apply
    • linguistic uses of and:
      (1) on Sundays and public holidays
      (2) the window is open and it is pulling.
      (3) give me your picture and I'll give you mine
      (4) Hans knocked on the window and smashed it
      (5) Karl is in the garden digging up.
      (6) the door was opened and she could come in
      (7) Maria was on vacation and got a good color
    •